Card Set Information
Four classic stages of bone healing.
inflammation, soft callus, hard callus, remodeling
Primary bone healing is characterized by... (2)
minimal callus formation and direct remodeling (cutting cones) across the fracture site
5 forces that act on bone.
compression, bending, rotation/torsion, shear, tension
What forces do K-wires counteract?
minor bending forces, rotation (multiples)
Steinmann pins are used in _______; what force(s) do they counteract?
IM pinning; bending
What bones are steinmann pins commonly used in? What bone should they never be used in?
: ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia
NEVER use in the radius (no safe point of entry that is not an articular surface)
How are orthopedic wires used?
cerclage, hemi-cerclage, tension band, interfragmentary wire
Cerclage fixation has very little resistance to __________.
Interlocking nails have the _______ strength of an IM pin and add the ability to neutralize __________ and _________.
bending; compression; torsion/rotation
In what bones can interlocking nails be used?
humerus, femur, and tibia
________ screws are self-tapping.
3 ways bone plates can be used.
neutralizing, compression, buttress (bridging)
Neutralization plating is used when needed to neutralize ___________________.
axial forces across a fracture
Compression plating is used when ____________ and _____________ are achievable and desired with the goal of _____________.
anatomic reduction; interfragmentary compression; primary bone healing
Bridging/ buttress plating is used for ______________.
comminuted, unstable fractures
Bone plates should be placed on the __________ surface of the bone.
If plating must occur on the compression surface, _____________ is significantly compromised.
resistance to bending
DCPs and LC-DCPs are used in...
neutral, compression, or bridging