Card Set Information
chapter 1: exploring geography chapter 2: climates and ecosystems chapter 3: population and culture chapter 4: resources and land use
What is geography?
The study of were people, places, and things are located, and how they relate to each other.
What is absolute location?
A locations position on the globe
What us relative location?
Describes were a place is in relation to another place.
What are the 5 main themes of geography?
: theme of location; Whats the location?
: theme of place; How is it similar of different than other places?
: theme of regions; What is the charcater?
: theme of movement; How do people, goods, ad ideas move between places?
: theme of enviroment; How do they interact with the natural enviroment of the place?
What is geology?
The study of the Earth's history and physical structure.
What are the 4 layers of the Earth?
How much of the Earth is covered with water?
What is the theory of plate tectonics?
The Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into moving plates. these plates can pull apart, crash into each ohter, or slide past each other.
What is weathering? And what are the two types?
Weathering is the process of breaking down rock into smaller pieces.
: Mechanical weathering- breaks down or weakens rocks physically.
: Chemical weathering- changes the chemical makeup of rocks.
What is erosion?
The movement of weathered materials, such as soil, sand, and gravel, from one place to another.
The theme of place describes?
How areas are alike or different.
What is a region?
A group of placeswith at least one thing in common.
What is weather?
The condition of the air in one plave over a short period of time and is always changing.
What is climate?
The kind of weather that an area has over a long period of time.
What are some things that influnce the climate?
latitude, ocean currents, longitude, elevation, and prevailing winds
There are seasons because...?
The earth is tilted on its axis.
How is an ecosystem formed?
By the interaction of plant life, animal life, and the physical enviroment in which they live.
What are the 4 ecosystems?
forest, grassland, desert, and tundra
What is a biome?
a major type of ecosystem that can be found in various reasons throughout the world.
What biomes can a forest region include?
: A tropical rain forsest
What is a tropical rain forest?
Broadleaf evergreens--warm--lots of rain
What are deciduous trees where are they found?
Broadleaf trees that shed their leaves--middle latitudes
What are coniferous forest? Where are they found?
coniferous trees have long thin needles, and cones, and they are found in colder parts of the middle latitude.
What is the chaparral biome?
includes small evergreens and low bushes or shurbs
Where do u find tropical grasslands/savannas?
they grow in warm lands near the equator.
Where do you find temperate grasslands?
they are found in cooler climates
What is the tundra?
very cold--plant life survives extreme colds, short growing seasons--w/o sun most of the winter.
What kind of patterns do prevailing winds occur in?
Regular and predictable.
What two catergories are used to classify climate regions?
temperature, and precipitation
What is culture?
people's beliefs, actions, and way of life
What is population density?
The average number of people in a square mile.
What is urbanization?
growth of city populations
What is the most important part of social organization?
What is culture convergence?
when customs of a society come in contact with those of another culture
what is culture divergence?
restrictions of a culture from outside cultural influences
What is a unitary system?
A country with a central government, federation, and confederation
What is a federation?
A country in which the national government shares power with the state government
What is a confederation?
smaller levels of government keep most of the power. example: switzerland
What is authoritarian?
leader hold all or nearly all political power, dictatorship and monarchy
What is a traditional economy?
all goods and services produced are consumed in the family or village.
What is a command economy?
a central government controls the economic system.
What are Primary economic activities?
rely on natural resources, such as farming and mining.
What is subsistence farming?
growing enough for the family or village; primary economic activity
What is commercial farming?
farmers raise crops and animals to be sold for a profit; primary econimic activity
What is secondary farming activity?
When people use raw merials to produce new products, such as processing wheat into flour
What are tertiary activities?
services such as healthcare, salespeople, firefighers, truck drivers, ect.
What are quaternary activities?
focus on processing and sharing information, education, government, research, ect.