MS- Osteoporosis.txt

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MS- Osteoporosis.txt
2015-03-02 18:11:12
musculoskeletal osteoporosis

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  1. Clinical disease related to reduced bone mass.
  2. Reduced bone mass without clinical disease.
  3. 3 causes of osteoporosis.
    protein calorie malnutrition, low calcium/normal phosphorous diets, localized osteopenia/osteoporosis due to disuse
  4. Protein calorie malnutrition causes osteoporosis because there is decreased ____________, so ________ are are reduced in vigor in ____________.
    energy; osteoblasts; forming bone
  5. The pathogenesis of osteoporosis involves an imbalance b/w...
    formation and resorption during remodeling of bone.
  6. With protein calorie malnutrition, there is normal ________.
  7. Osteoporosis that is localized due to disuse occur when there is increased ___________ and decreased ___________.
    resorption; formation
  8. With osteoporosis that is localized due to disuse, osteocytes sense ____________ and signal osteoblasts to stop forming bone via __________.
    mechanical use; sclerostin
  9. 3 structural changes that occur with osteoporosis.
    less bone, increased microcracks, pathologic fractures
  10. With osteoporosis, there are fewer trabeculae, meaning the trabeculae do not extend to the _________; there is also _________ of cortices.
    metaphyseal/diaphyseal junction; increased porosity
  11. Failure of mineralization of bone in the adult.
  12. Failure of mineralization of bone and growth place cartilage in the young animal.
  13. 3 causes of osteomalacia/rickets.
    vitamin D deficiency, phosphorous deficiency, xenobiotics that inhibit mineralization
  14. The pathogenesis of osteomalacia/ rickets involves inadequate ______________ at the _____________.
    calcium/phosphorous product; mineralization site
  15. The pathogenesis of osteomalacia/ rickets involves lack of ____________ needed at the mineralization site or for calcium absorption in the intestines.
    vitamin D metabolites
  16. The pathogenesis of osteomalacia/ rickets involves inhibition of the ______________ by drugs.
    mineralization process
  17. With osteomalacia/rickets, there is an accumulation of __________.
  18. With osteomalacia/rickets, there is a retention of _________ in the growth plate due to failure of ________; this causes flaring of the metaphysis due to ________________ and failure of ______________________.
    chondrocytes; mineralization; the thickened growth plate; osteoclasts (only resorb mineralized bone) to taper the bone at the cut back zone
  19. With osteomalacia/rickets, the accumulation of microcracks is secondary to _______________.
    reduced ability to remodel bone
  20. Response of bone to pathologic levels of PTH.
    fibrous osteodystrophy
  21. 3 causes of fibrous osteodystrophy.
    primary hyperparathyroidism, secondary renal hyperparathyroidism, secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism
  22. With secondary renal hyperparathyroidism causes a decrease in ________ with a secondary increase in _______; ________ is possible.
    serum Ca; PTH; soft tissue mineralization
  23. Secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism causes elevated PTH due to elevated _____ in the feed, causing decreased _____________ from the intestine; ________ is not likely, unlike secondary renal hyperparathyroidism.
    P; absorption of Ca; soft tissue mineralization
  24. With fibrous osteodystrophy, PTH stimulates... (3)
    osteoclastic bone resorption, fibrous differentiation, and hyperplasia of osteoprogenitor cells.
  25. 4 structural changes associated with fibrous osteodystrophy.
    decreased bone mass, reduced bone dimensions, pliable bones, pathological fractures/deformity
  26. 3 clinical consequences of fibrous osteodystrophy.
    deformity, pathologic fractures, bone pain
  27. Stress shielding causes ________ because it simulates _________.
    osteopenia; disuse