Card Set Information
Peds NBEO optometry
Peds1 NBEO optometry
what are the placental transfer classifications?
high placental transfer
Crosses the placenta rapidly and at equilibrium
Limited placental transfer
Fetal concentrations are lower than mothers
Excess placental transfer
Fetal concentrations are higher than mothers
how do antibiotics cross the placenta?
: High ampicillin, amoxicillin, methicillin
Cephalosporins limited cefotamine, cefuroxime
Aminoglycosides limited gentamycin, kanamycin
Q: what antiviral drugs cross the placenta?
A: Antiviral high acyclovir, ganciclovir
Q: what are postnatal factors that effect vision?
Medication during breast feeding
Q: what is the progression of the grasp?
: before 4 mo purely reflex
By 4 mo can grab objects at will
By 6 mo move objects between hands
By 8 mo grab and release obj at will
By 1 yr pincer grasp
Q: what are the gross motor milestones?
A: by 4 mo roll over
By 7 mo lift head, creep (20% only do ipsilateral)
5-8 mo sit
8-10 mo crawl
9-10 mo first aided steps
11 mo stand up alone with furnature
12 mo walk
15 mo kneel and stand up
18-24 mo coordinate different movements
24 mo jump, run, tiptoe, walk up and down stairs one at a time
36 mo accelerate, turn, and stop
3-5 yr alternate step going up and down stairs
4 yrs balance, climb trees
Q: what are the fine motor milestones?
A: by 6 mo put things in mouth
12 mo pincer grasp
24 mo pick up book
36 mo self- feed with spoon
3-4 yr manipulate writing instruments in tripad form
5 yr cut with scissors
Q: what are the 4 periods of cognitive development?
A: sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operations Formal operations
Q: what are the visual motor initegration milestones?
: by 2 yr | copy
36 mo - copy
39 mo O copy
40 mo | draw byself
3 yr draw l and O byself
4 yr 1 mo +
4 yr 4 mo /
4 yr 6 mo draw a square
4 yr 7mo
4 yr 11 mo oblique cross
5 yr 3 mo triangle
5 yr 6 mo open square and circle
5 yr 9 mo 3 line cross
8 yr 1 mo vertical diamond
10 yr 11 mo horizontal diamond
Q: what are the 6 stages of sensory motor?
: reflex, birth to 1 month
Cannot distinguish self from environment
: primary: circular reaction, 1-4 months
Hand-mouth coordination, anticipates
: secondary: circular motion, 4-10 months
Imitate, hand-eye coordination, increased
manipulation of objects
: coordination schemas, 10-12 months
Anticipates events at specific times,
uses learned responses in different situations
: tertiary: circular reaction, 12-18 months
Learn from trial and error, uses
different objects to explore surroundings
: symbolic representation, 18-24 months
Imitate in absence of mode, imagination
starts to show, imagination is used to represent objects, starts to solve problems which indicate “thought”, “memory” creation is essential
Q: what is sensorimotor?
: birth to 2 yrs, thinking associated with immediate sensorymotor
Needs immediate interaction with object to exist
Q what is the preoperation period
: 2- 7 years, symbol systems evolve, develops concept of time, space and quantitiy
Cannont conceive changes from one state to another
Learns to classify ideas and things into categories
Q: what is the concrete operations period?
A: 7-11 years, conceives how objects change, conservation of mass, reverse thinking, decentration
Q: what is the formal operations period?
A: 11 yrs +, abstract thought, thoughts about objects and thoughts, considers different alternatives for same problem, deals with ideas contrary to fact, metaphors or symbols of symbols
Q: What are the language development milestones?
A: 6 mo imitation, (ma-ma, da-da)
7 mo understands pitch
12 mo simple words
13-15mo visual and auditory memory
15-18 mo follows simple instrutions
21 mo 50 words
24 mo complete sentences
3 yr 900 words, 3-5 word sentences
5 yr 1500 words
7 yr elaborate conversations
Q: what are the emotional development milestones
A: 6 mo attachments
7-8 mo anxiety
7-10 mo optimal attachments
12 mo loose attachments
24 mo potty training, temper tantrums
3-4 yr develops self estem
6-7 yr nervous tics
Q: what is the growth progression of the volume of the orbit?
: from birth to 1 yr more than doubles biggest growth
From 1-5 yrs nearly doubles again
5 ys to adult nearly doubles again
Q: what is the shape of the orbit like at birth compared to an adult?
: opening more circular,
Lacrimal fossa more conical (lateral in adults)
Roof larger and flatter
Palbebral fissure grows vertical then horizontal
Q: what conditions might change the shape of the developing orbit?
Q: what is the normal IOP in newborns?
Q: when are the EOMs adult relations reached?
A: by 20 mo.
Q: what are the cones like in an infant?
A: shorter and broader, less densely packed
Q: when do cones become adult-like?
A: by 4 yo
Q: what is the total refractive power of a newborn eye
Q: what is the expected refractive condition of a newborn?
Q: What is the avg axial length of a newborn eye?
A: 6 mm smaller than adult (15.74mm)
Q: how long does emmetropization follow expected pattern?
A: up to 4-6 years
Q: What is the expected spherical error in infants?
A: newborns (pl - +4D)
By 6-8 yo (-0.62D - +0.62D)
Q: what is the predicted astigmatism magnitude in children?
A: newborns 1.5D
18 mo 0.75
Q: what is the order of speed in reduction of astigmatism?
A: WR > OA > AR
Q: What are the trends of variations of refractive conditions
A: premies tend to be myopic at birth
If hyperopia is equal non/cyclo (w/i 0.75D) Tends to remain hyperopic
If hyperopia is greater with cyclo regression to emmetropia
If myopia is milder w. cyclo myopia likely to decrease
If high myopia w/o cyclo tend to be stable myopia
Q: what are the predisposing factors to developing myopia?
A: spherical error +0.50D to pl by ages 5-6yo
AR astigmatism by 5 yo
Inheritance 40% if one parent has myopia, 70% if both have myopia
Congenital tends to remain high through life
Q: what do you need to know about juvenile myopia?
A: age of onset 6-15 yo
Avg progression 0.5D/yr for up to 6 yrs
Seldom progresses more than 6D
Q: what do you need to know about young adult myopia?
A: mostly seen in college students
Q: what drugs have limited placental transfer?
Q: what drugs have excessive placental transfer?
Benzodiazepines (anxiolytics and sedatives)
Q: What are the four basic models of vision care?
Q: what are the ethnic factors in myopia?
: blacks higher incidence of severe myopia, lower for juvenile and young adult myopia
Chinese/Japanese higher incidence of high myopia by adolescence