A&P2 TEST 1 - DEVELOPMENT; 20150308 214200

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thom.mccusker@gmail.com
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297489
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A&P2 TEST 1 - DEVELOPMENT; 20150308 214200
Updated:
2015-03-08 21:43:36
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DEVELOPMENT
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A&P2
Description:
A&P2 TEST 1 - DEVELOPMENT
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  1. DEVELOPMENT
    FERTILIZATION TO DEATH
  2. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
    • 1. FERTILIZATION
    • 2. IMPLANTATION
    • 3. PLACENTAL DEVELOPMENT
    • 4. EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
    • 5. FETAL GROWTH
    • 6. GESTATION
    • 7. BIRTH
    • 8. INFANCY
    • 9. CHILDHOOD
    • 10. ADOLESCENCE
    • 11. ADULTHOOD/AGING
  3. FERTILIZATION
    • COMBINING THE SPERM CELL W/ 2NDARY OOCYTE
    • DEVELOPMENT OF ZYGOTE
  4. GESTATION
    PERIOD OF EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
  5. PLACENTAL DEVELOPMENT
    • PLACENTA KEY INTEGRATION OF THE MOTHER & THE FETUS
    • COMES FROM THE ENDOMETRIUM OF THE MOTHER
  6. DECIDUA BASALIS
    • PART OF THE ENDOMETRIUM THAT DETERIORATES AFTER IMPLANTATION
    • BECOMES THE PATERNAL PART OF THE PLACENTA (20150225 00:03:50)
  7. CHORION
    EMBRYONIC PART OF THE PLACENTA
  8. 3 LAYERS OF THE ENDOMETRIUM
    • 1. CAPSULARIS
    • 2. DECIDUA BASALIS
    • 3. ???
  9. EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
    • FERTILIZATION TO 3 MONTHS
    • 1. GASTRULATION: DEVEL OF GERM LAYERS, TROPHOBLAST BECOMES INNER CELL MASS (ACTUALLY THE DEVELOPING EMBRYO)
    • DEVELOPS INTO THE 3 PRIMARY GERM LAYERS
    • A. ENDODERM
    • B. MESODERM
    • C. ECTODERM
    • 2. MEMBRANES
    • A. YOLK SAC (MESODERM) PRECURSOR TO THE BLOOD
    • B. AMNION (PROTECTIVE MEMBRANE) AMNIOTIC SAC
    • C. ALLANTOIS (UMBILICAL CORD)
    • D. CHORION (EMBRYONIC PLACENTA)
    • 3. PLACENTA + UMBILICAL CORD (FULL DEVELOPMENT)
  10. FETAL GROWTH
    3 TO 6 MONTHS
  11. GESTATION
    FERTILIZATION TO 38/40 WEEKS
  12. WHAT ARE THE 1ST INKLINGS OF DIFFERENTIATION IN EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT?
    THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENDODERM, MESODERM & ECTODERM
  13. WHEN TROPHOBLAST INSERTS ITSELF IN THE ENDOMETRIUM...
    • IT MUST INSERT ITSELF A CERTAIN WAY SO THAT THE INNER CELL MASS IS POINTING TOWARD THE BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE MOTHER/ENDOMETRIUM.
    • INNER CELL MASS MUST FACE INTO THE ENDOMETRIUM AS IMPLANTATION OCCURS.
    • OUTER CELL LAYER IS GOING TO FORM THE CHORION WH/ WILL EXTEND INTO THE ENDOMETRRIUM
    • IF IT INSERTS ITSELF IN THE WRONG DIRECTION IT CAN RESULT IN A MISCARRIAGE (OR INABILITY OF THE FETUS TO DEVELOP).
  14. OVERHEAD SLIDE 29-4 A-E Cleavage
    00:05:04
    • ZYGOTE FORMS & UNDERGOES CLEVAGE
    • BECOMES MORULA
    • BECOMES EARLY TROPOBLAST
    • BECOMES LATE TROPOBLAST
    • IMPLANTATION
    • DEVELOPMENT OF THE PLACENTA
    • PLACENTA DEVELOPMENT INITIATES THE START OF EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
    • FETAL GROWTH DETERMINED BECAUSE IT IS IN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO MOTHERS BLOOD
    • EMBRYO BEGINS TO DEVELOP ON AN ONGOING BASIS
  15. BIRTH
    • LABOR
    • DELIVERY
  16. LABOR
    • OXYTOCIN (STORED HORMONE IN THE NEURO HYPOTHESIS/POSTERIOR LOBE - PRODUCED IN THE HYPOTHALMUS)
    • BIRTHING PROCESS TURNS ON OXYTOCIN
    • OXYTOCIN TARGET MYOMETRIUM IN THE UTERUS
  17. MYOMETRIUM
    MIDDLE LAYER OF THE UTERUS THAT HAS SMOOTH MUSCLE AND BEGINS THE CONTRACTIONS WHEN EXPOSED TO OXYTOCIN
  18. OXYTOCIN IS A GOOD EXAMPLE OF...
    POSITIVE FEEDBACK LOOP
  19. ENDOMETRIUM
    INNERMOST LAYER OF THE UTERUS. CONTAINS THE VASCULAR BLOOD SUPPLY
  20. TROPHOBLAST IMPLANTS IN THE....
    ENDOMETRIUM
  21. PERIMETIUM
    THIN OUTER LAYER OF THE UTERUS. ANCHORS THE UTERUS TO THE BODY CAVITY.
  22. BIRTH
    • OCCURS WHEN WE CUT THE UMBILICAL CORD AND PROCESS OF LACTATION
    • COPIOUS AMOUNTS OF PROLACTIN BEING PRODUCED BY THE LACTOTROPHS IN THE ANTERIOR LOBE OF THE PITUITARY
    • PROLACTIN STIMULATES THE MAMMARY GLANDS - PRODUCES THE MILK
  23. LABOR STAGES
    • STAGE 1: ONSET CONTRACTIONS, EFFACING OF UTERUS (BECOMES THIN), UNTIL DILATION OF CERVIX IS COMPLETE
    • STAGE 2: MAX CERVIX DILATION (10CM OPTIMAL), BABY EXITS VAGINA 
    • STAGE 3: EXPULSION OF PLACENTA THROUGH VAGINA
  24. INFANCY
    BIRTH TO 18MONTHS
  25. NEONATAL
    1 TO 4 WEEKS
  26. CHILDHOOD
    18MONTHS TO PUBERTY
  27. ADOLESCENCE
    PUBERTY TO 20/21
  28. ADULTHOOD
    20/21 TO AGING
  29. GERIATRIC
    MORE AGING... NOT GOOD
  30. FERTILIZATION
    • SECONDARY OOCYTE (ARRESTED IN METAPHASE) + SPERMATOZOA
    • SPERMATOZOA PENETRATES SECONDARY OOCYTE WE HAVE COMPLETION OF MEIOSIS II WE FORM THE OVUM + POLAR BODY
  31. CAPACITATION
    • PROCESS OF SPERM PREPARING ITSELF FOR FERTILIZATION
    • FUNCTIONAL CHANGES OF MORPHOLOGY IN ORDER TO PENETRATE OOCYTE
    • ENZYMES IN THE ACROSOME ARE RELEASED ->
    • SPERM PENETRATES 1 CORONA RADIATA + 2 ZONA PELLUCIDA
    • MANY SPERMATOZA PENETRATE CORONA RADIATA
  32. ZONA PELLUCIDA
    • SECONDARY OOCYTE VERY PROTECTIVE GLYCOL LAYER AROUND IT
    • ONLY 1 SPERMATOZOA PENETRATES - POST PENETRATION GLYCOL LAYER GETS REINFORCES SO NO OTHER MAY PENETRATE
    • MIOSIS 2 COMPLETED - METAPHASE ACTIVATED
    • [FORM THE OVUM & POLAR BODY 2]
  33. CORONA RADIATA
    • INITIAL LARGE DENSE AREA OF CELLS SURROUNDING THE SECONDARY OOCYTE ABOVE THE ZONA PELLUCIDA
    • MANY SPERMATOZOA PENETRATE
    • 00:33:41 (IMG_1067)
  34. SEGMENTATION NUCLEUS
    POST FERTILIZATON COMBINATION OF THE FEMALE PRONUCLEUS (23 CHROMOSOMES) & MALE PRONUCLEUS (23 CHROMOSOMES) WITH A TOTAL OF 46 CHROMOSOMES
  35. ZYGOTE STAGES
    • (FORMS POST FERTILIZATION)
    • 1. ZYGOTE (WHEN MALE/FEMALE PRONUCLEUS COMBINE)
    • 2. CLEAVAGE
    • 3. MORULA: SOLID SPHERE OF CELLS SURROUNDED BY ZONA PELLUCIDA
    • 4. BLASTOCYST: HOLLOWS OUT MORULA - ENTERS THE UTERINE CAVITY 00:38:15
  36. BLASTOCYST STAGES
    • EARLY -> FLUID FILL CAVITY
    • LATER -> TROPHOBLAST - HAS OUTER CELL LAYER(PARTS OF THE CHORION & PLACENTA) & INNER CELL MASS(GOING TO BE THE FETUS & UNDER GOES GASTRULATION)
  37. GASTRULATION
    • DEVELOPMENT OF THE 3 PRIMARY GERM LAYERS
    • 1. ENDODERM
    • 2. MESODERM
    • 3. ECTODERM
    • 00:41:18
  38. WHAT DOES THE TROPHOBLAST DO?
    IMPLANTS INTO THE ENDOMETRIUM
  39. WHAT HAPPENS AFTER THE TROPHOBLAST IMPLANTS INTO THE ENDOMETRIUM?
    • TROPHOBLAST DIFFERENTIATES INTO 2 STRUCTURES
    • 1. SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLAST -  BURROW DEEPLY INTO ENDOMETRIUM, ASSISTED BY ENZYMES (SPOKES EXTEND - ANCHOR)
    • 2. CYTOTROPHOBLAST - STAYS VERY CLOSE TO AREA OF IMPLANTATION (STAYS BETWEEN INNER CELL MASS & SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLAST)
    • [CYTOTROPHOBLAST BECOMES PART OF THE CHORION. CHORION BECOMES PART OF THE EMBRYONIC PLACENTA]
  40. WHAT HAPPENS TO THE ENDOMETRIUM OF THE MOTHER AFTER FERTILIZATION OCCURS AND IMPLANTATION?
    • ENDOMETRIUM DIFFERENTIATES INTO 3 LAYERS (DECIDUA TERM FOR ENDOMETRIUM AFTER PREGNANCY - ALL 3)
    • 1. BASALIS - MATERNAL PLACENTA
    • 2. CAPSULARIS - COVERS ENTIRE EMBRYO
    • 3. PARIETALIS - REMAINING MODIFIED AREA OF THE UTERUS
  41. CHORION
    DEVELOPS FINGERLIKE PROJECTIONS THAT WILL GROW INTO THE DECIDUA BASALIS. MOTHERS & BABYS BLOOD BARRIER. NO COMMINGLING OF MOTHERS & BABIES BLOOD. EXCHANGES OCCUR OF O2, NUTRIENTS FROM MATERNAL BLOOD TO FETAL CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & CO2, WASTE FROM FETAL CIRCULATORY SYSTEM TO MATERNAL BLOOD.
  42. PLACENTA
    CHORION OF THE EMBRYO + DECIDUA BASALIS OF MOTHER

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