an sc 200

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  1. animal breeding definition
    the application of the study of genetics and reproductive physiology for the improvement of animal performance
  2. balanced selection involves
    • statistics
    • genetics
    • molecular biology
    • physiology
  3. animal breeding objectives
    • improved reproduction
    • increased animal production
    • increased production efficiency
    • increased quality of market products
  4. Qualitative genetics
    • 1 gene
    • not influenced by environment
    • easy to take advantage of
    • usually dominant/recessive
    • hair color
    • polled
    • blood type
  5. quantitative genes
    • 2 or more genes
    • poorly understood
    • heavily influenced by environment
    • milk production
    • carcass quality
    • egg production
  6. heritability
    • An estimate of the proportion of differences in individuals in a population that is due to heredity
    • use; to distinguish the effects of heredity and environmental effects
  7. Low H2
    • conception rate in cattle 
    • livability in chickens
    • litter size in swine
  8. medium h2
    • feed efficiency in swine
    • birth weight in sheep
    • milk production
    • egg production
  9. high h2
    • spotting in holsteins
    • egg weight
    • carcass traits in swine
    • carcass tenderness in beef cattle
  10. heterosis or hybrid vigour
    cross breeding
  11. Health
    State of physical, mental, and social well being. not just the absence of disease or infirmity
  12. disease
    any deviation from or interruption of normal structure or function of any body part, organ, or system
  13. good husbandry starts with...
    • vet advice
    • prevention programs
    • regular monitoring
  14. Heard Health program requires what?
    • Covers nutrition, pasture mainantence, bedding, vaccinations, parasite control, housing
    • needs...
    • good records
    • animal identification
    • also includes biosecurity protocol
  15. biosecurity
    a planned system that prevents entry or cross contamination of flock or herd
  16. what are the 3 major components of biosecurity
    • 1. Isolation
    • 2. Traffic Control
    • 3. Sanitation
  17. factors affecting how long a pathogen can survive are?
    • drying forces
    • ph
    • radiation (sunlight)
    • oxidation
    • level of organic matter
    • temperature
    • control of vectors
  18. physical barriers
    skin, self cleaning, normal flora
  19. innate immunity
    • bodies initial response to the pathogen. Keeps the pathogen at bay until acquired immunity can kick in. 
    • examples; inflammation, fever, defence mechanisms
  20. Aquired immunity
    Active and passive. Takes over after innate immunity
  21. Active immunity
    • pro - quick response time on second exposure
    • specific and long lasting
    • con - often requires boosters. May take several days or weeks to become active.
    • includes the bodies own antibodies and those of vaccines
  22. passive immunity
    • colostrum from animals
    • temporary and wanes over time
    • pro - offers immediate protection
    • con - can block the development of active immunity until it drops off
  23. HOT TOPICS!!!
    • food safety
    • responsible use of medicines
    • emerging zoonotic diseases
  24. What is Duncans definition of animal welfare?
    How an animal feels
  25. What is Brooms definition of animal welfare?
    • Animals attempts to cope with its environment.
    • Exisits on a continuum from very poor to very good
  26. OIE welfare definition
    State of the animal. How an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives
  27. 5 freedoms
    • freedom from thirst and hunger
    • freedom from discomfort
    • freedom from pain and injury or disease
    • freedom to express normal behaviour
    • freedom from fear and distress
  28. % of canadians that farm?
  29. each farmer can produce enough to feed how many people a year
  30. Supply Chain
    series of interconnected companies that assemble raw material to make a finished product
  31. Focus of the supply chain?
  32. Products of the supply chain?
    commodities such as milk, eggs, chicken, pork
  33. Level of trust in the supply chain
    Individual enterprise
  34. Value Chain what is it?
    String of companies WORKING TOGETHER to meet market demands
  35. What is the value chains focus
    The consumer
  36. What is the value chains product
    high value products
  37. what is the value chains level of trust
    the value chain collaboration
  38. Market push
    classic supply chain. Make something and hope people will buy it
  39. Market pull
    look at what is needed in the market and make it
  40. traceability and the 3 tiers
    • the ability to follow up on products or a group of products at any point in the supply chain.
    • - animal/product ID
    • - premis ID
    • - track movement
  41. efficiency
    • out
    • in
  42. vertigal integration
    ownership of different segments in the value chain by a single owner
  43. economy of scale
    reducing costs, increasing volumes, spreading the cost
  44. 3 types of products
    • commodity
    • processed
    • value added
  45. Biological performance indicators
    • feed conversion rate
    • growth rate
    • health status
    • livability
  46. production performance indicators
    • feed/person/hour
    • kg/m2
  47. economic performance indicator
    • gross income
    • net profit
  48. Value chain objective
    • the right animal
    • with the right characteristics
    • grown under the right conditions
    • at the right time
    • to the right weight
    • for the right products
    • for the right person
    • for the max return to the value chain
  49. Roundel characterisitcs
    • space to exersize normal behaviour
    • no need for beak trimming
    • spacial areas for rest, laying, eating and drinking
    • covered to protect from outside birds
    • biosecure from visitors
    • 2 climate zones
    • natural outdoor environment
    • sufficient parallels to natural life
    • socially acceptable hen housing
  50. Domestic food animals must be able to
    • grow rapidly
    • reproduce efficiently
    • produce more milk then what young need
    • work harder then what would be required in natural environment
  51. infectious diseases
    • bacteria - salmonella
    • virus - rabies
    • BSE
  52. non infectious
    • metabolic disorders
    • cancers
    • nutritional deficiencies
    • injuries
  53. The goal of herd health
    prevent non infectous, and prevent intro or spread of infectious
  54. Responsible use of medicines pros
    • pros - treat infections and other diseases
    • prevent disease
    • improve growth and productivity
    • improve welfare
  55. responsible use of medicines cons
    • antibiotic residues and other residues
    • hormones 
    • antibiotic resistance
    • broken needles in meat
    • international trade significance
  56. food safety
    • OFFSAP
    • farm to fork continuum
    • HACCP
  57. emerging zoonotic disease
    • recent recognition of important diseases
    • e.coli
    • west nile
    • BSE
    • now includes pre slaughter inspection
    • inspection at processing plant
    • elimination of risks
    • processes to avoid drug residues
  58. Environment community economy
    now all one
  59. factors that affect emergent diseases
    • travel more
    • climate and weather
    • war and famine
    • human behaviour
    • microbial adaptation
  60. h2 calculated
    • varitation due to heredity
    • total variation
  61. Broiler
    Plymouth rock  X cornish
  62. Cornish
    • large amount of white meat
    • poor carcass quality
    • poor reproduction
    • originated in the UK
  63. White Rock
    • Originated in US
    • maternal traits
    • excellent meat quality
    • small
  64. White leghorn
    • Originated in italy
    • foundation of egg type
    • small
    • very nervous
  65. broad breasted white
    • originated in US
    • lots of breast muscle
    • bad reproduction
    • good carcass
    • artificially inseminated due to low fertility
Card Set:
an sc 200
2015-03-04 08:23:15
an sc

second midterm review
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