Social Psychology

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Anonymous
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297533
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Social Psychology
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2015-03-04 09:14:14
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social psychology
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An Introduction to Social Psychology Chapter 2,3
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  1. Unobstrusive Measures(Non- reactive measures)
    • Measures that the participant is not aware of
    • Ch.2
  2. Construct
    • abstract theoretical concept
    • Ch.2
  3. Reactivity
    • Measurement alters the nature of what is being measured
    • Ch.2
  4. Social Neuroscience
    • The field to understand how biological systems implement social processes/ behaviour
    • Ch.2
  5. One- shot case study
    • Observations on a group after an event occured or manipulation has been introduced
    • Ch.2
  6. External Validity
    • Is the outcome valid outside the lab?
    • Ch.2
  7. Mediating Variable
    • mediates the relationship between to variables
    • X -> Z -> O
    • X affects O through Z
    • Ch.2
  8. Post- test only control group design
    • 2 groups (experimenatl, control) in an experimental design
    • Ch.2
  9. Internal Validity
    • Is there a causal relationship between independent and dependet variable?
    • Ch.2
  10. Construct Validity
    • The measured variables represent the variables we wanted to measure
    • Ch.2
  11. Moderating Variable
    • The third variable which influences under which conditions the independent Variable influences the dependet variable
    • Ch.2
  12. Confederate
    • Plays the role of a participant but actually is a partner of the experimenter
    • Ch.2
  13. Quota Sample
    • Reflects certain attributes of population (sex, age, etc)
    • Ch.2
  14. Discourse Analysis
    • Analysis of texts and talks to see how people make sense of their everyday worlds
    • Ch.2
  15. Post- experiment enquiry
    • Participants are carfully interviewed to find out what they think the purpose of the experiment was
    • Ch.2
  16. Manipulation Check
    • Measure of how effective the independent variable is
    • Ch.2
  17. Social desirability
    • Participants want to be seen in a good way
    • Ch.2
  18. Convergent Validity
    • Measures of same construct are associated with each other
    • Ch.2
  19. Demand Characteristics
    • Cues that unintentionally convey the experimenter's hypothesis
    • Ch.2
  20. Tringulation
    • The use of multiple methods and measures to research a given issue
    • Ch.2
  21. Social Perception
    Process of collecting and interpreting information about another person's individual characteristics
  22. Central trait
    • Dispositional characteristic which determines how a person's personality is perceived
    • i.e. warmth
    • Ch.3
  23. Peripheral trait
    • Characteristic which does not change the overall view of a person's personality
    • Ch.3
  24. Primacy effect
    • The tendency for earlier information to be more influential in social perception/ interpretation
    • Ch.3
  25. Summation
    • perceivers add together the bits of information they receive about a target
    • (Results suggest that we do not do this)
    • Ch.3
  26. Implicit personality theory
    • Perceivers try to figure out how different traits are organised within a person
    • Ch.3
  27. Configural model
    • Perceivers actively construct deeper meaning in bits of available informations of a person
    • Ch.3
  28. Cognitive algebra
    • Averaging or summing trait information when forming impression of other people
    • Ch.3
  29. Averaging
    • Perceivers compute mean value of pieces of information
    • 'Warm' and 'Boring' is perceived less positive than 'Warm' and 'Interesting'
    • Ch.3
  30. Self- fulfilling prophecy
    • When an originally false expectation leads to its own confirmation
    • Ch.3
  31. Causal Attribution
    • Perceivers arrive at conclusion about the causes of another person's behaviour
    • Ch.3
  32. Correspondent inference theory
    • Observers think about all behavioural options an actor had at the time of the decision to understand actor's intention
    • Ch.3
  33. Analysis of non-common effects
    • Process of the Correspondent inference theory in which the observer infer intentions behind actions by comparing the consequences and identifying distincticve outcomes of behavioural options that were open to the actor
    • Ch.3
  34. Correspondence bias
    • Observers overestimate personal causes of bahaviour but underestimate situational ones
    • Ch.3
  35. Covariation theory
    • Explaining cause of behaviour by collecting data about comparison cases
    • Needs: distinctiveness information (about object), consistency information (variation across situations), consensus information (differnce of actors behaviour towards the same object)
    • Ch.3
  36. Causal Schema
    • Knowledge structure shaping attribution
    • We fill in missing information by reference to our existing idea how effects are produced
    • Abstract Representations of general causual principles or
    • Domain specific ideas about cause and effect
    • Ch.3
  37. Discounting principle
    • Potential Causes are neglected if observers are aware of another factor working towards an observed effect
    • Example:
    • Downhill power 
    • Cycling power -->Speed
    • The speed is attributed to the downhill power
  38. Ch. 3 (P.66)
  39. Augmenting Principle
    • Knowledge of factors working afainst an effect leads people to conclude that possible causes must be stronger than otherwise
    • Exp. If cyclist cycles fast up a hill, the speed will be attributed to his cycling power
    • Ch. 3 (P.66)
  40. Causual power
    • The intrinsic attribute of an object/ event that enables it to exert influence on some other object/ event
    • Ch. 3
  41. Probabilistic contrast
    • Comparison of the frequency of an effectin the presence of a potential cause with its frequency in the absence of that cause
    • Exp. Child finds out that the mother brings the toy if it points at the toy by comparing what happens if it does not point at the toy
    • Ch. 3
  42. Learned Helplessness theory
    • Depression results from learning that there is nothing a person can do to change a situation
    • Ch. 3
  43. Depressive realism
    • Idea that depressed people's interpretations of reality are more accurate than those of non- depressed
    • Ch. 3
  44. Attributional Biases
    • Bias in the sampling or processing of information about the cause of behaviour
    • Ch. 3
  45. False Consensus Bias
    • The assumption that other people generally share one's own personal attitudes and opinions
    • Ch. 3
  46. Salience
    • Attention grabbling property of objects events depending on perceptual features
    • Ch. 3
  47. Actor- observer difference
    • Explain own behaviour in situational terms and others behaviour in more dispositional terms
    • Ch. 3
  48. Self- serving attributional biases
    • Motivational biases of attribution to maintain self- esteem
    • Ch. 3
  49. Naïve scientistic model
    • Mataphor that everybody tries to understand the world in a scientif manner but sometimes get it wrong
    • Ch. 3
  50. Priming
    • Activating one stimulus (e.g. bird) facilitates the subsequent processing of another related stimulus (e.g. wing, feather)
    • Ch. 4
  51. Lexical decision task
    • cognitive measure of how quickly people classify stimuli as real words or nonsense words
    • Ch. 4
  52. encoding
    • The way in which we translate what we see into a digestible format to be stored in the mind
    • Ch. 4
  53. Representativeness heuristic
    • mental shortcut wherby instances are assigned to categories on the basis of how similar they are to the category in general
    • Ch. 4
  54. Base rate information
    • Information that gives us an idea how frequent certain categories are in genera population
    • Ch. 4
  55. Availability heuristics
    • cognitive shortcut wherby people judge on how quickly sth. come to their mind
    • Ch. 4

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