Circulatory systems, blood flow through the heart and heart anatomical considerations
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What are the four chambers of the heart?
Right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
What are the two main circulations within the body?
Systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation
What is the differences between afferent and efferent vessels of the heart?
Afferent vessels direct blood away from the heart and efferent vessels take blood to the heart
What type of blood vessels are the site of tissue gas exchange within the body?
The right atrium receives oxygenated/deoxygenated blood from circulation?
Where is blood from the right atrium directed to?
The right ventricle
Through what vessel does blood leave the right ventricle? Where does blood go?
The pulmonary trunk (pulmonary arteries). Blood goes to the lungs.
Blood returns from the lungs through the ...? And enters which heart chamber?
- pulmonary veins
- Left atrium
Through what blood vessel does blood leave the left ventricle?
Which vessels convey blood to the head, neck and forelimbs? And the body tissues?
- Head neck and forelimbs - subclavian and common carotid arteries
- Body tissues - descending and abdominal aorta
In what vessels does venous blood return to the heart?
Cranial and caudal vena cava
Describe the position of the heart within the thorax (left lateral view)
The heart lies between ribs 3-6 at an angle with the base lying cranial and dorsal to the apex which lies caudal and ventral
On a dorsoventral view of the heart does it lie to the left or right of midline?
The left of midline
What is the cardiac notch?
It is the area of the heart that is direct contact with the thoracic wall
What structure does the heart lie within?
The pericardium, which lies within the middle mediastinum
What are the two layers of the pericardium?
Parietal and visceral
What ligament does the pericardium form?
The sternopericardial ligament
What fills the pericardial cavity?
A few mls of serous fluid i.e. pericardial fluid
What limits the stretch of the pericardial sac?
The fibrous layer containing connective tissue
List the layers of the heart wall, including pericardium, from inside to outside
Endocardium, myocardium, visceral pericardium & epicardium, pericardial space, parietal pericardium, fibrous pericardium
Which layer contains cardiac muscle?
Which layer contains purkinjie fibres?
How is cardiac muscle tissue arranged and why?
They are arranged in networks to ensure proper directional flow when they contract and squeeze the blood through the different chambers and out of the heart
List histological features of cardiac smooth muscle
- Single, central nuclei
- Branching myofibres
- Purkinjie fibres
- Intercalated discs
What are intercalated discs?
Connections between myofibres that allow for unified contraction of sarcomeres
What is endomysium?
Connective tissue running between the myofibres
On what side of the heart is the coronary groove uninterrupted by a blood vessel?
The right side
What does the coronary groove define?
The position of the atria and ventricles - above the groove is atria/below the groove is ventricles
What structure defines the position of the right and left ventricles?
The interventricular groove
What major blood vessels enter the right atrium?
Cranial vena cava, caudal vena cava, (right) azygous vein
What blood vessel interrupts the coronary groove on the left side?
The pulmonary trunk
What chambers of the heart can be seen on the cranial/caudal portion when viewing the left side of the heart?
- Cranial - right ventricle
- Caudal - left ventricle
What chamber forms the apex of the heart?
The left ventricle
Where does the aorta arise from?
The base of the heart, medial to pulmonary trunk and left of the oesophagus
What sac like structures can be seen on the left view of the heart?
Auricles - blind ending sacs that are extensions of the atria
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