Circulatory systems, blood flow through the heart and heart anatomical considerations

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Circulatory systems, blood flow through the heart and heart anatomical considerations
2015-03-04 12:16:58
Circulation Heart Anatomy

Vet Med - Module 10
Show Answers:

  1. What are the four chambers of the heart?
    Right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
  2. What are the two main circulations within the body?
    Systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation
  3. What is the differences between afferent and efferent vessels of the heart?
    Afferent vessels direct blood away from the heart and efferent vessels take blood to the heart
  4. What type of blood vessels are the site of tissue gas exchange within the body?
  5. The right atrium receives oxygenated/deoxygenated blood from circulation?
  6. Where is blood from the right atrium directed to?
    The right ventricle
  7. Through what vessel does blood leave the right ventricle?  Where does blood go?
    The pulmonary trunk (pulmonary arteries).  Blood goes to the lungs.
  8. Blood returns from the lungs through the ...?  And enters which heart chamber?
    • pulmonary veins
    • Left atrium
  9. Through what blood vessel does blood leave the left ventricle?
    The aorta
  10. Which vessels convey blood to the head, neck and forelimbs?  And the body tissues?
    • Head neck and forelimbs - subclavian and common carotid arteries
    • Body tissues - descending and abdominal aorta
  11. In what vessels does venous blood return to the heart?
    Cranial and caudal vena cava
  12. Describe the position of the heart within the thorax (left lateral view)
    The heart lies between ribs 3-6 at an angle with the base lying cranial and dorsal to the apex which lies caudal and ventral
  13. On a dorsoventral view of the heart does it lie to the left or right of midline?
    The left of midline
  14. What is the cardiac notch?
    It is the area of the heart that is direct contact with the thoracic wall
  15. What structure does the heart lie within?
    The pericardium, which lies within the middle mediastinum
  16. What are the two layers of the pericardium?
    Parietal and visceral
  17. What ligament does the pericardium form?
    The sternopericardial ligament
  18. What fills the pericardial cavity?
    A few mls of serous fluid i.e. pericardial fluid
  19. What limits the stretch of the pericardial sac?
    The fibrous layer containing connective tissue
  20. List the layers of the heart wall, including pericardium, from inside to outside
    Endocardium, myocardium, visceral pericardium & epicardium, pericardial space, parietal pericardium, fibrous pericardium
  21. Which layer contains cardiac muscle?
  22. Which layer contains purkinjie fibres?
  23. How is cardiac muscle tissue arranged and why?
    They are arranged in networks to ensure proper directional flow when they contract and squeeze the blood through the different chambers and out of the heart
  24. List histological features of cardiac smooth muscle
    • Striated
    • Single, central nuclei
    • Branching myofibres
    • Purkinjie fibres
    • Intercalated discs
    • Endomysium
  25. What are intercalated discs?
    Connections between myofibres that allow for unified contraction of sarcomeres
  26. What is endomysium?
    Connective tissue running between the myofibres
  27. On what side of the heart is the coronary groove uninterrupted by a blood vessel?
    The right side
  28. What does the coronary groove define?
    The position of the atria and ventricles - above the groove is atria/below the groove is ventricles
  29. What structure defines the position of the right and left ventricles?
    The interventricular groove
  30. What major blood vessels enter the right atrium?
    Cranial vena cava, caudal vena cava, (right) azygous vein
  31. What blood vessel interrupts the coronary groove on the left side?
    The pulmonary trunk
  32. What chambers of the heart can be seen on the cranial/caudal portion when viewing the left side of the heart?
    • Cranial - right ventricle
    • Caudal - left ventricle
  33. What chamber forms the apex of the heart?
    The left ventricle
  34. Where does the aorta arise from?
    The base of the heart, medial to pulmonary trunk and left of the oesophagus
  35. What sac like structures can be seen on the left view of the heart?
    Auricles - blind ending sacs that are extensions of the atria