Micro Test 1

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Micro Test 1
2015-03-09 04:59:58
micro test

Micro test 1
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  1. Organisms
    • Fungi
    • Protozoa
    • Algae
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Helminths
  2. Archaea
    • Thermophiles
    • Methanogens
    • Halophiles
    • These are not pathogenic
  3. Halophiles
    Not pathogenic cuz they need 15-30% salt to be made and survive
  4. Non-Cellular "Entities"
    • Entities because they don't have cells
    • Viruses - HIV, Measles
    • Prions - Protiens, Kuru
    • Viroids - Nucleic acids
  5. Mycology
    Study of fungi
  6. Phycology
    Study of algaea
  7. Virology
    Study of Viruses
  8. Bacteriology
    Study of bacteria
  9. Cell types
    • Prokaryotes
    • Eukaryotes
  10. Fungi Types
    • Molds
    • Yeast
  11. Fungi
    Eukaryotic, Saprophytic and pathogenic
  12. Saprophytic
    Produces enzymes to digest food and then absorb it (fungi), the can also invade
  13. Molds
    Multicellular and is composed of mycelium that have a tiny thread structure
  14. Mold Pathogens
    • Aspergillus - cause ear disease
    • Mucor
    • Rhizopus - more known for fruit rot but can infect
  15. Yeast
    Unicellular and pathogenic
  16. Protozoa
    • Eukaryotes
    • Pathogenic and live everywhere not just in water
  17. Algae
    Photosynthetic are the majority. (Doesn't have to be photosynthetic to be algae
  18. Spontaneous Genesis
    Non living matter gives rise to living things
  19. Biogenesis
    • Life arose from life
    • Supported by evolution or vice versa
  20. Redi's Experiments
    Proved biogenesis and disproved spontaneous genesis
  21. Needham's Experiment
    Scientist thought microbes, but not animals, could arise spontaneously
  22. Pasteur's Experiment
    Shifted non evidential reasoning to evidential. Started with observation
  23. Bioremediation
    Uses microbes to clean up environments like oil spills etc.
  24. Kouch
    • Came up with the idea of isolation of bacteria in pure cultures
    • Came up with Petri Dishes -> Solid agar as growth medium
  25. Kochs Postulates
    • Suspected causative agent must be found in every case of the disease and be absent from healthy hosts
    • Agent must be isolated and grown outside the host
    • When agent is introduced into a healthy, susceptible host, the host must get the disease
    • Same agent must be found in the diseased experimental host
  26. Albert Neisser
  27. Theodore Escherich
    E. Coli
  28. Walter Reed
    Yellow Feaver
  29. Alexander Yersin and Kitasato
    Bubonic Plague
  30. Shibasubaro Kitasato
  31. Kiyoshi Shiga
  32. Gram's Stain
    • 2 groups.
    • Most powerful staining technique ever devised.
    • Used to ID via cell wall composition and helps you fight disease so you can tell what you are able to treat it with and what kind of drugs to use.1
  33. Gram's Stain groups
    • Gram Positive - blue or purple
    • Gram Negative - pink or red
  34. Preventing Disease and Infection Behaviors
    • Were dictated by:
    • Snow
    • Jenner
    • Ehrlichs
  35. Semmelweiss Snow
    • Laid foundation of infection control and epidemology.
    • In London there was a bread street pump and the closer people are died while further didn't. So he turned the pump off because the water was contaminated and people stopped dieing.
  36. Jenner
    • Vaccines and field of immunology
    • Milkmaids that came to him didn't get small pox
  37. Ehrlichs
    "Magic Bullets" the father of chemotherapy
  38. Leeuwenhoek
  39. Linnaeus
  40. Pasteur
    • Pasteurization
    • Industrial Microbilogy
  41. Koch
    • Koch's postulates
    • Etiology
  42. Ivanowski
  43. Beijerinck Winogradsky
    Environmental microbiology
  44. Gram
    • Microbial morphology
    • Gram Stain
  45. Lister Nightingale
    Antiseptic medical techniques
  46. Fleming
    Pharmaceutical microbiology
  47. Bacteriology
    Bacteria and archaea
  48. Phycology
  49. Mycology
  50. Protozoology
  51. Parasitology
    Parasitic protozoa and parasitic animals
  52. Virology
  53. Microbial metabolism
    Biochemistry. chemical reactions within cells
  54. Microbial genetics
    Functions of DNA and RNA
  55. Environmental microbiology
    Relationships between microbes and other organisms and their environment
  56. Serology
    Antibodies in blood serum
  57. Immunology
    Body's defenses against the spread of disease
  58. Epidemiology
    Frequency, distribution, and spread of disease
  59. Etiology
    Causes of disease
  60. Infection control
    Hygiene in health care settings
  61. Chemotherapy
    Development and use of drugs to treat infectious diseases
  62. Bioremediation
    Use of microbes to remove pollutants
  63. Public Health Microbiology
    Sewage treatment, water purification, and control of insects that spread disease
  64. Agricultural microbiology
    Use of microbes to control insect pests
  65. Food and beverage technology
    Reduction or elimination of harmful microbes in food and drink
  66. Pharmaceutical microbiology
    Manufacture of vaccines and antibiotics
  67. Recombinant DNA technology
    Alteration of microbial genes to synthesize useful products
  68. Nitrogen fixation
    • Convert nitrogen to atmosphere and make us air
    • Organisms are capable of fixing some species of bacteria.
  69. Processes of Life
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
    • Responsiveness
    • Metabolism
  70. Prokaryotes
    • Lack nucleus
    • Small
    • Simple structure (no phospholipid membranes)
    • Include bacteria and archaea
  71. Eukaryotes
    • Have nucleus
    • Have internal membrane-bound organelles
    • Larger
    • Complex structure
    • Include algae, protozoa, fungi, animals, and plants
  72. Glycocalyces Structure
    Slime layer, then capsule, then glycocalyx, cell wall, then cell membrane
  73. Glycocalyx
    Thin layer fully adherent to the bacterial cell wall. Not visible with light microscopy. Always present in all bacterial cells and the primary function is attachment
  74. Capsule
    • Visible with light microscopy and is much more abundant then the glycocalyx. The capsule is not present all the time. Formed if excess nutrients are present.
    • Has the ability to cause disease, is cytotoxic, decreases microphage migration and resists digestion by microphage
  75. Slime Layer
    Similar composition to the capsule, but is more loosely attached to the cell wall and can be easily removed by washing. Functions os facilitate attachment
  76. What organisms function in attachment
    • Glycocalyx
    • Capsule
    • Slime Layer
    • Glycocalyx is restricted to the outside of the cell wall
  77. Flagella
    • Primary function is movement and it is also chemosensory
    • Directional movement called taxi
    • Action is to coordinate
    • Most efficient lacamoto and is secondary for ATP production
    • Can get ID of orgranism
  78. Fimbriae
    • Recognize receptors in tissues and decides what to bind to.
    • Attach to tissue and they hang out where the receptors are
    • Used for bacteria to attach, when they attach then you can cause disease
  79. Pili
    Pilus is a reproductive organelle and it is used in bacterial sex.
  80. Biofilm Pioneer
    William J Costerton
  81. Beta Lactams
    React with Peptidoglycan (PG) of the cell wall
  82. Peptidoglycan (PG)
    Bacteria have this so if you have more you are gram positive and if you have less you are gram negative
  83. bacillus
    • Rod shaped bacteria
    • Bacillus is not the same thing
  84. Bacterial Cell Walls
    • Provide structure and shape
    • Assist cells in attaching to other cells
    • Can target cell wall of bacteria with anibiotics
    • Gives shape
    • Composed of Peptidoglycan (PG)
  85. Teichoic Acid and Lipoteichoic Acid
    • Not found in the gram negative bacteria
    • no LPS and no outer membrane in positive stain
  86. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
    • Only found in Gram Negative
    • O - Polysaccharide chain
    •      -Varies, used to ID strains
    • Lipid A - Is constant in all gram negative bacteria
    •      -Toxic
  87. Electro Transport Chain
    • Part of the cell membrane in bacterial cell
    • Main function is oxidative phosphorylation = ATP production
    • Selectively permeable
  88. Plasmic Membrane Function
    • Passive:
    • Diffusion
    • Facilitated disffusion
    • Osmosis
    • Active:
    • Active transport
  89. Group translocation
    Glucose gets converted to glucose 6 phosphate
  90. Cytosol
    Liquid portion of cytoplasm of bacteria
  91. Inclusion/Granule
    Stored nutrients within cell that can be tapped when needed
  92. Endospores
    • Survival device because they can go into suspended animation
    • Grows again if enough neutrients or it will remain dormant
    • Consist of triple layer cell wall, DNA, and enzymes and have dipicolinic acid
  93. Spore Formation
    Lets organisms survive for long periods of time without dying and are incredibly resistant
  94. 2 Major Spore Forming Organisms are:
    • Clostridium
    • Bacillus
  95. Ribosomes
    • 2 types:
    • 70S - Mitochondria
    • 80S - Cytoplasm
    • S - Syepberg Unit
  96. Cytoskeleton
    Forming the cells basic shape
  97. The Vast Majority of microorganisms cannot cultured or grown in lab. T/F
    True, cuz we don't know what conditions are to grow them
  98. Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID)
    Come from new species or strains
  99. Examples of EIDs
    • HIV
    • SARS
    • Influenza
    • West Nile Virus
  100. Factors Contributing to EIDs
    • Medical Practice
    •     -Questionable use of anitbiotics
    • Patient non-compliance
    •      -TB
    • Medical tourism
    • Antibiotic ressidues in food, water etc