BIBC 120 Health Benefits of Lipids

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  1. Hold LDL constant and high to low HDL...
    10 fold increase in CV disease risk
  2. Hold HDL constant and low to high LDL...
    3 fold increase in CV disease risk
  3. What is atherosclerosis?
    formation of plaques that can block arteries
  4. blockage of coronary arteries
    heart disease
  5. blockage of cerebral arteries
  6. Seven steps of plaque formation
    • 1. oxidized lipoproteins aggregate and stick to extracellular matrix
    • 2. monocyte attracted to area of oxidized lipoproteins
    • 3. monocyte differentiates into macrophage
    • 4. foam cell ingests lipoproteins
    • 5. free cholesterol accumulates in membranes, forms droplets
    • 6. apoptosis, necrosis, tissue damage
    • 7. cholesterol-rich plaque forms
  7. What are the three defects or mutations in familial hypercholesterolemia?
    • 1. defective LDL uptake leading to high serum cholesterol
    • 2. mutation in gene encoding LDL receptor
    • 3. mutation in gene encoding Apoprotein B (ApoB) which is part of LDL that binds to receptor
  8. Heterozygotes of hypercholesterolemia
    dominant phenotype of elevated risk for atherosclerotic heart disease
  9. homozygotes for hypercholesterolemia
    develop atherosclerosis during childhood
  10. True/False: Restricting total intake alone can affect the rate of CV, obesity, or cancer.
  11. AMDR for lipids, carbs, proteins
    • lipids: 20-35%
    • carbs: 45-65%
    • proteins: 10-35%
  12. Average dietary intake of cholesterol
    200-300 mg per day
  13. True/False: There is no correlation between dietary cholesterol and risk for CV disease
  14. Main finding of Siri-Tarino, 2010 study
    Relative increase in risk for CV disease with high intake of saturated fatty acids was 1.07 and not statistically significant
  15. Significance of Masai people of East Africa
    • consume at least 1/3rd of calories for saturated fats (milk, meat, blood)
    • remarkably low CV disease
    • replaced diet with flour, sugar, shortening and atherosclerosis increased
  16. Findings of Micha and Mozaffarian, 2010 study
    • Replace SFA w/PUFA - 10% reduction of CV risk
    • Replace SFA w/carbohydrate - no effect
    • Replace SFA w/MUFA - mixed results
  17. Two biggest sources of SFA in U.S.
    dairy and cheese
  18. Milk fat content
    • 69% SFA
    • 25% MUFA
    • 2% PUFA
    • poor source of PUFA
  19. NAS recommendation for SFA
    SFA should be no more that 10% of total calories
  20. How are trans fats formed?
    Hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils converts them to saturated fatty acids and produces large amounts of trans fatty acids as a byproduct
  21. What is the risk with trans fats?
    Increased risk of CV disease
  22. What are the two essential fatty acids?
    linoleic acid and linolenic acid
  23. Why are the two essential fatty acids considered essential?
    Humans lack the Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases to make them
  24. Outline linoleic acid
    Linoleic acid (ω-6) - [Δ5, Δ6 desaturases + elongation + Acetyl-CoA] - arachidonic acid -> eicosanoids (prostaglandins); paracrine hormones (signal transduction)
  25. Outline linolenic acid
    Linolenic acid (ω-3) - [Δ5, Δ6 desaturases + elongation + Acetyl-CoA] - eicosapentaenoic acid - [elongation + desaturase activity] - docosaenoic acid/phospholipids (important component of cell membranes and nervous system)
  26. Good dietary source of linoleic acid
    sunflower oil, corn, seeds, nuts
  27. Good dietary source of linolenic acid
    fish, walnuts
  28. Good dietary source of arachidonic acid
    meats, eggs
  29. Increasing which has shown to be better: ω-6 or ω-3?
  30. What do nuclear receptors PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma do? What are two good ligands?
    • They bind to (unsaturated) fatty acids and regulate genes involved in fatty acid and lipoprotein metabolism
    • EPA and DHA are good ligands
Card Set:
BIBC 120 Health Benefits of Lipids
2015-03-05 00:40:24

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