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- Ways in which people respond to one another.
- -Verbal communication
- -Nonverbal communication
The way in which a society is organized into pattern of predictable relationships between people, social practices, organizations and institutions that establish limits on behavior.
- A socially defined position in a group or society characterized by a certain expectations, rights and duties.
- Examples: parents, child, grandparents, aunts, uncles
- Status assigned to a person by society
- Generally assigned at birth
- Examples: male, female, race, age
- Status which comes to us largely through our own efforts.
- Examples: student, doctor, athlete, musician, boat owner, car owner
- A status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position in society.
- Example: Christopher Reeve was superman than it changed to a paraplegic or Ellen Degeneres is gay.
- Material signs that inform others of a person's specific status.
- Example: wedding ring (you're married), minivan (you're a soccer mom), backpack (you're a student)
- A set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status.
- Example: coach & player, parent & child
A group or society's definition of the way a specific role ought to be played.
How a person actually plays a role.
- Occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that the person holds.
- Example: student - stress on homework, studying, getting A's
- Incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person. Example: School & Work - conflict with not getting off of work to study for an exam.
- Individuals move into occupations not common among people in their ascribe status. Example: Firefighter - uncommon for women or a young boss
- Process of disengagement from a role that is central to one's identity to establish a new role.
- Example: Married to divorce, single to taken or vice versa
The ways in which people respond to one another.
- Any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with each other on a regular basis.
- Example: Co-workers, friends, family
- Small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time.
- Example: friends, family
- A larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time.
- Example: classmates
- Series of social relationships that link person directly to others, and indirectly links him or her to still more people.
- Example: social media, FB
- A social institution is a set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs.
- Five Basic Social Institutions: Family, Religion, Education, Economy, Government
Group unity based on minimal division of labor and the similarity of roles & beliefs (preindustrial)
Group unity based on the division of labor in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence (industrial)
Traditional society in which solidarity is based on personal bonds, friendship and kinship, and intergenerational stability.
Economic system engaged primarily in the processing and control of information.
Technologically sophisticated society preoccupied with consumer goods and media images.
- A collection of people to happen to be in the same place at the same time, may share a common purpose but have limited interaction.
- Example: Mall to shop, Football game
A number of people who may never have met one another but share similar characteristics.
Any group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity.
A group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility.
Any groups of people use as a standard evaluating themselves and their actions regardless of whether they belong to the group.
- A temporary or permanent alliance geared toward achieving a common goal.
- Example: a bunch of ants caring a dead cockroach.
A goal or task oriented.
It provides emotional support for members.
Make all major group decisions and assign tasks to members. Provide structure and stability in times of crisis, though are often criticized for fostering intergroup hostility.
Encourage group discussions and decision making through consensus building. Often praised for supportive behavior, but may be blamed for being indecisive in a crisis.
Are only minimally involved in decision making and encourage group members to make their own decisions. Often liked by group members for not flaunting power, but group may not accomplish goals.
Going along with peers who have no special right to direct behavior.
Compliance with higher authorities in an hierarchical structure.
An extreme form of group cohesiveness in which group members begin to think alike and do not question each other or consider alternative choices in making a decision.
- An organizational model that offers a rational means of attaining organization goals because it contributes to coordination and control.
- 1. Division of Labor - divide tasks (owner, cashiers, bus-boys)
- 2. Hierarchy of Authority - someone has to be in charge
- 3. Written Rules & Regulation - hand book
- 4. Employment Based on Technical Qualifications - making a resume
- 5. Impersonality - the idea that everyone is treated the same
Practices that social groups develop to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws, and to discourage deviance
Internal social control
Takes place when individuals internalize norms and values and follow those norms and values in their lives.
External social control
Involves negative sanctions that proscribe certain behaviors and punish rule breakers.
Informal social control
- Interactions amongst individuals that casually enforce norms
- Example: class clown
Formal social control
- The enforcement of norms by authorized agents of society.
- Example: Americans have to be 21 or over to drink alcohol
- Any behavior, belief or condition that violates social norms in the society or group in which it occurs.
- Quote: "It is not the act itself, but the reactions to the act, that make something deviant"
- One form of deviance
- Any action or inaction prohibited by law and punishable by the state as a misdemeanor or felony.