SOC 100 - Exam 2

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SOC 100 - Exam 2
2015-03-12 04:17:24

Chap 4, 5, 6
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  1. Social Interaction
    • Ways in which people respond to one another.
    •    -Verbal communication
    •    -Nonverbal communication
  2. Social Structure
    The way in which a society is organized into pattern of predictable relationships between people, social practices, organizations and institutions that establish limits on behavior.
  3. Status
    • A socially defined position in a group or society characterized by a certain expectations, rights and duties.
    • Examples: parents, child, grandparents, aunts, uncles
  4. Ascribed Status
    • Status assigned to a person by society
    • Generally assigned at birth
    • Examples: male, female, race, age
  5. Achieved Status
    • Status which comes to us largely through our own efforts.
    • Examples: student, doctor, athlete, musician, boat owner, car owner
  6. Master Status
    • A status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position in society.
    • Example: Christopher Reeve was superman than it changed to a paraplegic or Ellen Degeneres is gay.
  7. Status symbols
    • Material signs that inform others of a person's specific status.
    • Example: wedding ring (you're married), minivan (you're a soccer mom), backpack (you're a student)
  8. Social Roles
    • A set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status.
    • Example: coach & player, parent & child
  9. Role Expectation
    A group or society's definition of the way a specific role ought to be played.
  10. Role Performance
    How a person actually plays a role.
  11. Role Strain
    • Occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that the person holds.
    • Example: student - stress on homework, studying, getting A's
  12. Role Conflict
    • Incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person. Example: School & Work - conflict with not getting off of work to study for an exam.
    • Individuals move into occupations not common among people in their ascribe status. Example: Firefighter - uncommon for women or a young boss
  13. Role Exit
    • Process of disengagement from a role that is central to one's identity to establish a new role.
    • Example: Married to divorce, single to taken or vice versa
  14. Social Interaction
    The ways in which people respond to one another.
  15. Groups
    • Any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with each other on a regular basis.
    • Example: Co-workers, friends, family
  16. Primary group
    • Small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time.
    • Example: friends, family
  17. Secondary group
    • A larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time.
    • Example: classmates
  18. Social Networks
    • Series of social relationships that link person directly to others, and indirectly links him or her to still more people.
    • Example: social media, FB
  19. Social Institutions
    • A social institution is a set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs.
    • Five Basic Social Institutions: Family, Religion, Education, Economy, Government
  20. Mechanical Solidarity
    Group unity based on minimal division of labor and the similarity of roles & beliefs (preindustrial)
  21. Organic solidarity
    Group unity based on the division of labor in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence (industrial)
  22. Gemeinschaft society
    Traditional society in which solidarity is based on personal bonds, friendship and kinship, and intergenerational stability.
  23. Postindustrial society
    Economic system engaged primarily in the processing and control of information.
  24. Postmodern society
    Technologically sophisticated society preoccupied with consumer goods and media images.
  25. Aggregate
    • A collection of people to happen to be in the same place at the same time, may share a common purpose but have limited interaction.
    • Example: Mall to shop, Football game
  26. Category
    A number of people who may never have met one another but share similar characteristics.
  27. Ingroup
    Any group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity.
  28. Outgroup
    A group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility.
  29. Reference Group
    Any groups of people use as a standard evaluating themselves and their actions regardless of whether they belong to the group.
  30. Coalitions
    • A temporary or permanent alliance geared toward achieving a common goal.
    • Example: a bunch of ants caring a dead cockroach.
  31. Instrumental leadership
    A goal or task oriented.
  32. Expressive leadership
    It provides emotional support for members.
  33. Authoritarian leaders
    Make all major group decisions and assign tasks to members. Provide structure and stability in times of crisis, though are often criticized for fostering intergroup hostility.
  34. Democratic leaders
    Encourage group discussions and decision making through consensus building. Often praised for supportive behavior, but may be blamed for being indecisive in a crisis.
  35. Laissez-faire leaders
    Are only minimally involved in decision making and encourage group members to make their own decisions. Often liked by group members for not flaunting power, but group may not accomplish goals.
  36. Conformity
    Going along with peers who have no special right to direct behavior.
  37. Obedience
    Compliance with higher authorities in an hierarchical structure.
  38. Groupthink
    An extreme form of group cohesiveness in which group members begin to think alike and do not question each other or consider alternative choices in making a decision.
  39. Bureaucracies
    • An organizational model that offers a rational means of attaining organization goals because it contributes to coordination and control.
    • 1. Division of Labor - divide tasks (owner, cashiers, bus-boys)
    • 2. Hierarchy of Authority - someone has to be in charge
    • 3. Written Rules & Regulation - hand book
    • 4. Employment Based on Technical Qualifications - making a resume
    • 5. Impersonality - the idea that everyone is treated the same
  40. Social Control
    Practices that social groups develop to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws, and to discourage deviance
  41. Internal social control
    Takes place when individuals internalize norms and values and follow those norms and values in their lives.
  42. External social control
    Involves negative sanctions that proscribe certain behaviors and punish rule breakers.
  43. Informal social control
    • Interactions amongst individuals that casually enforce norms
    • Example: class clown
  44. Formal social control
    • The enforcement of norms by authorized agents of society.
    • Example: Americans have to be 21 or over to drink alcohol
  45. Deviance
    • Any behavior, belief or condition that violates social norms in the society or group in which it occurs.
    • Quote: "It is not the act itself, but the reactions to the act, that make something deviant"
  46. Crime
    • One form of deviance
    • Any action or inaction prohibited by law and punishable by the state as a misdemeanor or felony.