Anthropology 101 Chapter 3

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Anthropology 101 Chapter 3
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2015-03-05 00:51:43
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Chapter 3
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  1. What is the basic units of life in all living organisms.
    Cell
  2. Cells
    Life on earth can be traced back 3.7 billion years to single celled organisms, such as bacteria and blue-green algae.

    Eukaryotic cells, cells with a nucleus, appeared 1.2 billion years ago.

    A three-dimensional structure composed of carbohydrates, lipids (fats), nucleic acids, and proteins
  3. Cell Nucleus
    A discrete unit surrounded by a thin membrane, called the nuclear membrane.

    Inside are two kinds of nucleic acids, molecules that contain genetic information that controls the cell’s function.
  4. Molecules
    Structures made up of two or more atoms.

    Molecules can combine with other molecules to form more complex structures.
  5. Nucleic Acids
    ¨DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

    ¨RNA (ribonucleic acid)
  6. Cytoplasm
    • ¨Surrounds he nucleus and contains many other types of organelles involved in various activities, such as breaking down nutrients and converting them to other substances, storing and releasing energy, releasing waste, and
    • manufacturing proteins in a process called protein synthesis.
  7. Organelles
    Mitochondria - oval structures enclosed within a folded membrane, containing their own distinct DNA, called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)

    Ribosomes – roughly symmetrical and partly composed of RNA; essential in protein synthesis
  8. Somatic cells
    • cellular components of body tissues, such as
    • muscle, bone, skin, nerve, heart, and brain
  9. Gametes
    sex cells involved in reproduction and not important as structural components of the body

    Egg cells produced in female ovaries

    Sperm cells produced in male testes
  10. Zygote
    union of sex cells to form the potential of developing into a new individual; in this way gametes transmit genetic information from parent to offspring.
  11. Cellular function and an organism’sinheritance depends on the
    structure and function of DNA
  12. DNA is composed of
    two chains of nucleotides, comprising a double strand or double helix.
  13. A nucleotide consists of
    a sugar, a phosphate, and one of four nitrogenous bases.
  14. DNA Structure, two chains are held together by
    bonds formed on their bases with their complement on the other chain.

    • ¤Adenine (A) is the complement
    • of Thymine(T)

    • ¤Guanine(G) is the complement
    • of Cytosine(C)
  15. DNA Replication
    Cells multiply by dividing, making exact copies of themselves and enabling organisms to grow and injured tissues to heal.

    The DNA molecule is able to make copies of itself.
  16. Enzymes
    Specialized proteins that initiate and direct chemical reactions in the body.

    • Replication begins when enzymes break the bonds between bases throughout the DNA molecule, separating two previously joined strands of nucleotides and leaving their bases
    • exposed.
  17. The DNA Replication Process
    Enzymes break the bonds between the DNA molecule.

    • Two nucleotide chains serve as templates for the formation of a new strand of
    • nucleotides.

    Unattached nucleotides pair with the appropriate complementary nucleotide.
  18. Proteins
    Complex, three dimensional molecules that function through their ability to bind to other molecules

    The protein hemoglobin, found in red blood cells, is able to bind to oxygen, which carries it throughout the body
  19. Protein Synthesis
    Ribosomes help convert the genetic message from the DNA into proteins.

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the genetic message from the cell nucleus to the ribosome.

    • ¨Transfer RNA (tRNA), found in the cytoplasm, binds to one specific amino
    • acid.
  20. Amino Acids
    Small molecules that are the components of proteins.

    Amino acids are the building blocks of protein.

    • Proteins differ according to number of amino acids and the sequence in which they are
    • arranged
  21. Hemoglobin Molecule
    Hemoglobin molecules are composed of four chains of amino acids (two “alpha” chains and two “beta” chains).

    The red structures are the portions that bind to oxygen
  22. Hormones
    Substances (usually proteins) that are produced by specialized cells and travel to other parts of the body, where they influence chemical reactions and regulate various cellular functions.
  23. RNA and DNA
    RNA differs from DNA in three important ways:

    1.It’s usually single-stranded. (This is true of the forms we discuss, but it’s not true for all.)

    • 2.It
    • contains a different type of sugar.

    3.It contains the base uracil as a substitute for the DNA base thymine. (Uracil is attracted to adenine, just as thymine is.)
  24. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    A form of RNA that’s assembled on a sequence of DNA bases.

    It carries the DNA code to the ribosome during protein synthesis
  25. Codons
    ¨Triplets of messenger RNA bases that code for specific amino acids during protein synthesis.
  26. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
    ¨The type of RNA that binds to amino acids and transports them to the ribosome during protein synthesis.
  27. Protein Synthesis: Transcription
    The process of coding a genetic message for proteins by formation of mRNA.

    A portion of the DNA unwinds and serves as a template for the formation of a mRNA strand.
  28. Transcription
    The two DNA strands have partly separated.

    Free messenger RNA (mRNA) nucleotides have been drawn to the template strand, and a strand of mRNA is being made.

    Note that the mRNA strand will exactly complement the DNA template strand, except that uracil (U) replaces thymine (T).
  29. Protein Synthesis: Translation
    The mRNA travels through the nuclear membrane to the ribosome.

    tRNAs arrive at the ribosome carrying their specific amino acids.

    The base triplets on the tRNA match up with the codons on the mRNA.

    As each tRNA line up in the sequence of  mRNA codons their amino acids link to form a protein.
  30. What is a Gene?
    A gene is the entire sequence of DNA bases responsible for the synthesis of a protein.

    A mutation occurs when the sequence of bases in a gene is altered.

    • Mutations may interfere with the ability to produce vital protein and may lead to a new
    • variety within the species, hence, evolution.
  31. Noncoding sequences are called
    introns, and are initially transcribed into mRNA and then clipped out
  32. Recently, geneticists have learned that only some parts of genes are actually transcribed  into mRNA (most of the nucleotide sequences in genes are not expressed during protein synthesis).

    What is this part called
    Exons
  33. Regulatory Genes
    • Genes that code for the production of proteins that can bind to DNA and modify the
    • action of genes.

    Many are active only during certain stages of development.
  34. Homeobox Genes (Hox genes)
    An evolutionarily ancient family of regulatory genes (highly conserved) that directs the development of the overall body plan and the segmentation of body tissues.
  35. Function of  Hox Genes
    determine the overall pattern of each type of vertebra and of each individual vertebra
  36. Cell Division
    ¨Cell division results in production of new cells.

    ¨During cell division:

    ¤Cells are involved with normal cellular and metabolic processes.

    ¤The cell’s DNA becomes tightly coiled.

    ¤DNA is visible under a microscope as chromosomes.
  37. During normal cell functions, chromosomes exist as
    single-stranded structures.
  38. A chromosome is composed of a
    DNA molecule and associated proteins.
  39. During cell division, chromosomes consist of
    two strands of DNA joined at the centromere.
  40. Humans have how many chromosomes
    46 chromosomes
  41. Chromosome pairs are called
    homologus

    ¤They carry genetic information that influences the same traits.

    ¤They are not genetically identical.
  42. Number of Chromosome in Chipanzee and Gorillas
    48 Chromosomes
  43. Types of Chromosomes
    Autosomes -  govern all physical characteristics except sex determination

    ¨Sex chromosomes - X and Y chromosome.

    ¤Mammal females have two X chromosomes.

    ¤Mammal males have one X and  one Y chromosome.
  44. Mitosis
    Mitosis is cell division in somatic cells.

    • Mitosis occurs during  growth and
    • repair/replacement of tissues.

    The result of mitosis is two identical daughter cells that are genetically identical to the original cell.
  45. Steps in Mitosis
    1.The 46 chromosomes line up in the center of the cell.

    2.The chromosomes are pulled apart at the centromere.

    3.The strands separate and move to opposite ends of the dividing cell.

    4.The cell membrane pinches in and two new cells exist.
  46. Meiosis
    Cell division in specialized cells in ovaries and testes.

    • Meiosis involves two divisions and results in four daughter cells, each containing only
    • half the original number of chromosomes.

    These cells can develop into gametes.
  47. Recombination
    Sometimes called crossing over; the exchange of genetic material between partner chromosomes during meiosis.
  48. Evolutionary Significance of Meiosis
    Meiosis and sexual reproduction are highly important evolutionary innovations.

    Meiosis increases genetic variation at a faster rate than mutation.

    Offspring in sexually reproducing species represent the combination of genetic information from two parents.
  49. Problems with Meiosis
    In order for fetal development to occur normally, the meiotic process needs to be exact

    If chromosomes or chromosome strands do not separate during either of the two divisions, serious problems can develop

    Failure to separate is called nondisjunction
  50. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
    Allows scientists to make of copies of DNA samples which can then be analyzed.

    Scientists use PCR to:

    • ¤Examine nucleotide
    • sequences in Neandertal fossils and Egyptian mummies

    • ¤Identify an
    • individual DNA sequences.

    ¤Identify remains of victims of 911.

    ¤Exonerate people wrongly convicted of crimes.
  51. Recombinant DNA Technology
    • A process in which genes from the cell of one species are transferred to somatic cells or
    • gametes of another species.

    Production of human gene products such as insulin

    Genetic manipulation
  52. Clones
    Organisms that are genetically identical to another organism.

    • The term may also be used in referring to genetically identical DNA segments, molecules,
    • and cells.
  53. Human Genome Project
    • Effort begun in 1990 to sequence the entire human genome, which consists of some 3
    • billion bases comprising approximately 25,000 to 30,000 genes.

    The goal was achieved in 2003.

    • Scientists are still several years away from identifying the functions of many of the
    • proteins produced by these genes.

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