BIBC 120 Energy Balance
Card Set Information
BIBC 120 Energy Balance
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
Conservation of Energy; the total amount of energy in the universe remains constant
What is positive energy balance?
Energy intake > energy expenditure
What is negative energy balance?
energy intake < energy expenditure
What is 1 calorie?
The amount of heat needed to raise 1g (1mL) of water by 1°C
What are the three components to total energy expenditure?
thermic effect of food
About how many kcal per day is used by BMR?
Males or females have higher BEE?
In the heart, brain, liver, kidney, and lungs, what is the % body mass and % of BEE?
5% of body mass
50-60% of BEE
In the skeletal muscle, what is the % body mass and % of BEE?
35-45% of body mass
25% of BEE (protein turnover, muscle fiber remodeling)
In adipose tissue, what is the % body mass and % of BEE?
10-35% of body mass
less than 5% of BEE
BEE is affected by this regulation
What is affected by endocrine regulation?
number of mitochondria
brown fat - uncouple ETC from ATP synthase
amount of active transport
What is hyperthyroidism?
too much thyroid hormone release
increase in BMR
What is hypothyroidism?
too little thyroid hormone release
decrease in BMR
What is taken into account when calculating EER?
What is the equation for BMI?
weight (kg)/ height
What is the BMI cutoff for obesity?
> 30 kg/m
What is the trend of physical activity of Americans over the past 40 years?
physical activity levels have decreased and there are more low activity occupations
What is the risk change of type II diabetes from normal weight to obesity?
: 7-12 fold increase
: 93 fold increase
What is the risk change of CV disease from normal weight to obesity?
What are some non-biological factors that affect energy balance?
What are some biological factors that affect energy balance?
short-term physiological feedback after eating
long-term endocrine affect satiety
Where is Leptin secreted from?
What is the timing of leptin?
What are the effects of leptin?
decreases hunger (increases satiety)
How was the Set Point Theory found?
a. restrict food supply
: lose body mass (negative energy balance)
b. then allow unrestricted food
: gain weight to original weight, but not above
What chromosome was ob gene found on?
What chromosome was db gene found on?
What is the problem with ob/ob mice?
has leptin receptor but defective leptin production
What is the problem with db/db mice?
produces leptin but has defective leptin receptors
What is parabiosis?
surgical connection of blood supply between two mice
What happened when ob/ob mouse and db/db mouse was linked?
ob/ob mouse became normal and db/db mouse remained obese
What happened when ob/ob mouse and normal mouse were linked?
both became normal (factor was soluble in blood)
What happened when db/db mouse and normal mouse were linked?
db/db mouse remained obese and normal mouse became skinnier (factor was not soluble)
Where is the leptin receptor?
How much is the annual revenue of weight loss industry?
What did the Gardner, 2007 study show?
: 10.4 pound loss
: 4.8 pound loss
: 5.7 point loss
: calories in vs calories out
What is the most important factor for maintaining weight loss?