BIBC 120 Energy Balance

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  1. What is the first law of thermodynamics?
    Conservation of Energy; the total amount of energy in the universe remains constant
  2. What is positive energy balance?
    • Energy intake > energy expenditure
    • weight gain
  3. What is negative energy balance?
    • energy intake < energy expenditure
    • weight loss
  4. What is 1 calorie?
    The amount of heat needed to raise 1g (1mL) of water by 1°C
  5. What are the three components to total energy expenditure?
    • thermic effect of food
    • physical activity
    • basal metabolism
  6. About how many kcal per day is used by BMR?
    1000-2000 kcal/day
  7. Males or females have higher BEE?
  8. In the heart, brain, liver, kidney, and lungs, what is the % body mass and % of BEE?
    • 5% of body mass
    • 50-60% of BEE
  9. In the skeletal muscle, what is the % body mass and % of BEE?
    • 35-45% of body mass
    • 25% of BEE (protein turnover, muscle fiber remodeling)
  10. In adipose tissue, what is the % body mass and % of BEE?
    • 10-35% of body mass
    • less than 5% of BEE
  11. BEE is affected by this regulation
    endocrine regulation
  12. What is affected by endocrine regulation?
    • number of mitochondria
    • brown fat - uncouple ETC from ATP synthase
    • amount of active transport
  13. What is hyperthyroidism?
    • too much thyroid hormone release
    • increase in BMR
    • weight loss
  14. What is hypothyroidism?
    • too little thyroid hormone release
    • decrease in BMR
    • weight gain
  15. What is taken into account when calculating EER?
    • age
    • weight
    • height
    • physical activity
  16. What is the equation for BMI?
    weight (kg)/ height2 (m2)
  17. What is the BMI cutoff for obesity?
    > 30 kg/m2
  18. What is the trend of physical activity of Americans over the past 40 years?
    physical activity levels have decreased and there are more low activity occupations
  19. What is the risk change of type II diabetes from normal weight to obesity?
    • BMI >30: 7-12 fold increase
    • BMI >35: 93 fold increase
  20. What is the risk change of CV disease from normal weight to obesity?
    60% increase
  21. What are some non-biological factors that affect energy balance?
    • stress
    • cultural
    • psychological
    • food availability
    • socio-economic background
    • physical activity
  22. What are some biological factors that affect energy balance?
    • short-term physiological feedback after eating
    • long-term endocrine affect satiety
  23. Where is Leptin secreted from?
    adipose tissue
  24. What is the timing of leptin?
  25. What are the effects of leptin?
    decreases hunger (increases satiety)
  26. How was the Set Point Theory found?
    • a. restrict food supply: lose body mass (negative energy balance)
    • b. then allow unrestricted food: gain weight to original weight, but not above
  27. What chromosome was ob gene found on?
    chromosome 6
  28. What chromosome was db gene found on?
    chromosome 4
  29. What is the problem with ob/ob mice?
    has leptin receptor but defective leptin production
  30. What is the problem with db/db mice?
    produces leptin but has defective leptin receptors
  31. What is parabiosis?
    surgical connection of blood supply between two mice
  32. What happened when ob/ob mouse and db/db mouse was linked?
    ob/ob mouse became normal and db/db mouse remained obese
  33. What happened when ob/ob mouse and normal mouse were linked?
    both became normal (factor was soluble in blood)
  34. What happened when db/db mouse and normal mouse were linked?
    db/db mouse remained obese and normal mouse became skinnier (factor was not soluble)
  35. Where is the leptin receptor?
  36. How much is the annual revenue of weight loss industry?
    $20 billion
  37. What did the Gardner, 2007 study show?
    • low-carb diet: 10.4 pound loss
    • low-fat diet: 4.8 pound loss
    • AMDR diet: 5.7 point loss
    • bottom line: calories in vs calories out
  38. What is the most important factor for maintaining weight loss?
    physical activity
Card Set:
BIBC 120 Energy Balance
2015-03-05 13:07:23

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