2.10 Blood Clotting & grouping
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What 3 events happen when a blood vessel tears?
-coagulation of proteins to form a clot
What is hemostasis?
Stopping blood flow
Homeostasis) vascular spasm (2)
-initial phase to stop blood flow
Hemostasis) Vascular spasm, what happens?
Contraction of vessel smooth muscle to try to stop the blood flow
Hemostasis) what's the second step?
platelet plug formation
Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: what would this be sufficient enough for?
Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: what activates the platelet?
The tear of vessel results in collagen being exposed that activates platelets
Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: what 3 things does the platelet granules release?
Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: Thromboxane (2)
-helps platelet adherence to wall of vessel
Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: ADP
-encourages platelet adherence to the wall of torn vessel
Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: Serotonin
-promotes spasms of blood vessels
Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: which is not secreted from the granules of platelet but is founded in external surface of platelets within plasma membrane?>
Platelet factor 3
Hemostasis) Platelet plug formation: what does platelet factor 3 do?
-involved in clotting mechanism
Hemostasis) what is phase 3?
Hemostasis) coagulation: when is it used?
For large tears
Hemostasis) coagulation: what is it?
Sequential activation of clotting factors that are proteins made up in liver that are numbered or named
Hemostasis) coagulation: do these protein factors circulate in plasma?
Yes they circulate while inactive and are only activated when blood vessel is torn
Hemostasis) coagulation: which ion does it invoked in several steps?
What aare the 3 steps of coagulation?
-production of prothrombin activator
-conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
-fibrinogen converted to fibrin
3 steps of coagulation) what is prothrombin activator ?
-globular protein that is an enzyme
3 steps of coagulation) what creates prothrombin activator?
- Several PRO factors will clump together to form this
- *these pro factors only clump together when it senses blood vessel torned
3 steps of coagulation) conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
Performed by prothrombin activator
3 steps of coagulation) fibrinogen converted to fibrin
Performed by thrombin
What does the extrinsic pathway and intrinsic pathway eventually create?
3 steps of coagulation) extrinsic pathway , activated by
Tearing of extrinsic blood vessel walls
3 steps of coagulation) what does extrinsic pathway release? (2)
tissue factor and VII factors
3 steps of coagulation) intrinsic pathway is activated by?
Activation of intrinsic circulating factor XII
3 steps of coagulation) prothrombin, fibrinogen, and PRO factors are all...
Circulating in blood and nothing happens till a vessel is torn
Control of coagulation) what does anticoagulation phase do?
Focus on removal of thrombin
Control of coagulation) where is anticoagulation found in greatest concentration?
At the outside of the clot bc they were stimulated by clot itself
Control of coagulation) what is their main goal?
To directly or indirectly inhibit the production of thrombin by inhibiting factors at different levels
What does a mature clot have trapped within it
-blood cells trapped
-platelets that have aggregated and formed a matting
-fibrin threads woven throughout
-firm, stable structure attached to wall of blood vessel
Clot retraction and dissolution) what do platelets contain that allow them to contract?
- *contractile protein
Clot retraction and dissolution) what occurs during this phase? (3)
-platelets squeeze out serum using its contractile proteins
-pulls edges together
-PDGF assists in development/division of smooth muscle & rebuild of the wall vessel.
What is PDGF?
platelet derived growth hormone
Fibrinolysis) Process (3)
-Plasminogen in blood is activated by several factors including thrombin
-Activated plasminogen becomes plasmin
-plasmin breaks down fibrin clot
Disorders of Hemostasis) thromboembolytic conditions :
- a piece of clot, embolus, chips off the clot and travels downward to smaller vessel creating a blockage
Disorders of Hemostasis) bleeding disorders : what does this prevent?
Inability to clot
Disorders of Hemostasis) bleeding disorders : thrombocytopenia
-few platelets that lead to bigger bruising or hemorrhages
Disorders of Hemostasis) bleeding disorders : impaired liver function
Inability to form certain form factors that participate in the whole clotting process
Disorders of Hemostasis) bleeding disorders : Hemophilia (2)
-deficiency of certain factors
Blood grouping) what are antigens?
Stimulates the immune system that are embedded in plasma of RBCs
Blood grouping) What does type A blood signify?
Blood grouping) What does type B blood signify?
Blood grouping) what does Type AB signify?
Both A and B antigen
Blood grouping) what does type O signify?
Neither of A & B
Transfusions) Antibodies: Type A
Has anti B antibodies
Transfusions) Antibodies: type B
Has anti A antibodies
Transfusions) Antibodies: type O
Has anti A and B antibodies
Transfusions) Antibodies: Type AB?
Has none of the antibodies
What is Rh blood?
- Another type of antigen
- * "D" antigen
What does Rh+ signify
If antigen Rh is present
What does Rh- signify?
That Rh is not present
If mother is Rh- and baby is Rh+ have potential for?
hemolytic disease of the newborn at second pregnancy
How do they combat issues with mother being Rh- and baby being rh+?
They give the mother rhogam that masks d-antigen to prevent development of antibodies for Rh+
Diagnostic blood tests) Type and crossmatch
Tests for blood type
Diagnostic blood tests) complete blood count (4)
-white blood cell count and differential
Diagnostic blood tests) Complete blood count: RBC count
# RBC /mm3
Diagnostic blood tests) Complete blood count: hemoglobin measurement
hgb (g)/ 100 ml blood
Diagnostic blood tests) Complete blood count: hematocrit measurement
- % of total blood volume that is RBCs
- *average 38-54%
Diagnostic blood tests) Complete blood count: white blood cell count and differential
- Counts how many WBC and how many of each type
- *normally 5000-10,000/mm3 & Ncytes
Diagnostic blood count tests) Clotting factors (4)
-partial thromboplastin time
Diagnostic blood count tests) prothrombin time
How fast extrinsic pathway is activated
Diagnostic blood count tests) blood chemistry
- *Na, k, CA, nitrogen, choelsterol
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