Handbuch zur deutschen Grammatik: Kapital 18 Infinitives

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Author:
jbird917
ID:
297680
Filename:
Handbuch zur deutschen Grammatik: Kapital 18 Infinitives
Updated:
2015-03-05 14:52:06
Tags:
german grammar
Folders:
German
Description:
notes on grammar for forming phrases and clauses with infinitives in German
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  1. Compare the usage of infinitive clauses in German and English that follow adjectives
    • 1. German only allows this if the verb takes a direct object, and only with specific adjectives: 
    •   einfach, interessant, schwer, schwierig, and liecht
    • 2. English examples: That idea is bound to fail. The sight was terrible to behold.
  2. How can German infinitive clauses express an English --ing clause?
    • In Casablanca zu warten ist gefährlich. 
    • Waiting in Casablanca is dangerous.
  3. How is the English phrase "like to ___" expressed in German?
    with "gern"
  4. How is "in order to ___" expressed in German?
    with um and the infinitive phrase

    Example: "um mit ihm zu sprechen" "in order to speak with him"
  5. how is the English phrase "without __-ing" expressed in German?
    • ohne and the infinitive phrase
    • Example: "ohne jemandem etwas darüber zu sagen"
    • "without telling anyone about it"
  6. how is the English phrase "instead of ___-ing" expressed in German?
    with (an)statt and the infinitive phrase

    • Example: "(an)statt mit ihm die Stadt zu verlassen"
    • "instead of leaving the city with him"
  7. when are infinitives used without zu?
    • 1. with modal verbs
    • 2. with werden
    • 3. with verbs of perception: fühlen, hören, sehen, spüren (to perceive, feel)
    • 4. heißen (to command), lassen, and gehen
    • infinitives in these cases function as V2 verbs, and do not use zu
  8. which German verbs can occur with or without the use of zu?
    with the semi-modal verbs helfen, lehren, and lernen

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