Handbuch zur deutschen Grammatik: Kapital 18 Infinitives
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Compare the usage of infinitive clauses in German and English that follow adjectives
- 1. German only allows this if the verb takes a direct object, and only with specific adjectives:
- einfach, interessant, schwer, schwierig, and liecht
- 2. English examples: That idea is bound to fail. The sight was terrible to behold.
How can German infinitive clauses express an English --ing clause?
- In Casablanca zu warten ist gefährlich.
- Waiting in Casablanca is dangerous.
How is the English phrase "like to ___" expressed in German?
How is "in order to ___" expressed in German?
with um and the infinitive phrase
Example: "um mit ihm zu sprechen" "in order to speak with him"
how is the English phrase "without __-ing" expressed in German?
- ohne and the infinitive phrase
- Example: "ohne jemandem etwas darüber zu sagen"
- "without telling anyone about it"
how is the English phrase "instead of ___-ing" expressed in German?
with (an)statt and the infinitive phrase
- Example: "(an)statt mit ihm die Stadt zu verlassen"
- "instead of leaving the city with him"
when are infinitives used without zu?
- 1. with modal verbs
- 2. with werden
- 3. with verbs of perception: fühlen, hören, sehen, spüren (to perceive, feel)
- 4. heißen (to command), lassen, and gehen
- infinitives in these cases function as V2 verbs, and do not use zu
which German verbs can occur with or without the use of zu?
with the semi-modal verbs helfen, lehren, and lernen
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