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3 functions of blood
-transportation/distribution of substances
- -maintenance of homeostasis
- *transporting warm blood from core to outer surface where sweating will be cooling the blood off then transporting the cool blood back to the heart
-protection by transporting wbcs
Components of plasma)
- -proteins + lipids
-dissolved components like ions, glucose, gases
- *part of the plasma that do not contain clotting proteins
Plasma maintenance) fluid maintenance
- Consumed and removed by drinking and urinating
Plasma maintenance) maintenance of salutes is kept by (5)
Plasma maintenance) who maintains fluid maintenance?
What are the 3 types of formed elements in plasma?
erythrocytes) are RBCs true cells?
- *they once were when they were immature
erythrocytes) structure (2)
-cytoplasm with lipids, ATP, carbonic Anydrase , hemoglobin
erythrocytes) which 3 organelle is it lacking?
erythrocytes) what does it carry a lot of?
Hemoglobin because it needs to transport oxygen and co2
erythrocytes) what is its main energy pathway ?
erythrocytes) function: 2 main functions
-transport O2 from lungs to tissues
-transport CO2 from tissues to lungs
Hemoglobin: what are the 4 protein chains it carries?
2 alpha and 2 beta
Hemoglobin: where does it carry the o2?
On its iron that it carries in the center
Hemoglobin: where does it carry the co2?
On the protein chains `
Production of erythrocytes) what's erythropoiesis?
Process of RBC production
Production of erythrocytes) as an embryo and fetus, whjere is it produced?
Production of erythrocytes) Aftfer birth (2)
Production of erythrocytes) adulthood
-bone marrow certain regions
How long is erythropoiesis?
4 day process
What is significant about stem cells?
- They are plurally potent
- *they can transfer into whatever cell they want
Where are stem cells usually located?
In bone marrow
How does Erythropoietin begin?
With stimulation of stem cell by specific hormone that makes the stem cell undergo mitosis & produce a daughter cell called proerythroblast. Then undergo steps to become a RBC
Erythropoiesis ) what occurs because of the immense production of hemoglobin
-gets rid of the nucleus for space for hemoglobin
-ER breaks down at end of cycle
Erythropoiesis ) Where does the protein that stimulates stem cell released by?
What dictates the increase or decrease of RBC SYNTHESIS?
Erythropoiesis ) how is the kidney affected by prpuiction of RBC? (1+2)
Kidneys are sensitive to oxygen levels...
-not enough O2= release erythropoietin to stimulate stem cells in bone marrow
-if a lot= then decrease erythropoietin
What does the kidney release to control the production of RBC synthesis ?
Turnover of RBC) what's its shelf life? And what happens? (1+2)
120 days then
-plasma membrane fragments and lodges itself into spleen
Turnover of RBC) role of spleen (2)
Spleen traps RBC
Macrophages within spleen destroys RBC and recycles the components
Turnover of RBC) hemoglobin is ...
Turn into heme + globin
Turnover of RBC) heme is turned into?
Iron + porphyrin ring
Turnover of RBC) globin is turned into?
Turnover of RBC) iron is...
Shuttled to liver or bone
Turnover of RBC) porphyrin ring is used for...
Used to make bilirubin which makes bile
Erythrocytes disorders ) Anemia's:
- few red blood cells
-decrease hemoglobin content
- -abnormal hemoglobin
- *sickle cell anemia's
Erythrocytes disorders) polycythemia
Excess numbers of RBC which turns blood into sludge
Leukocytes) are these true cells?
Yes, they have all organelle and nucleus
It lacks this
Leukocytes) which is larger RBC or WBC?
Leukocytes) what is it involved in?
- Independently mobile so it can move out of blood vessel
Leukocytes) granulocytes: why are they called this way?
They have granules visible
Leukocytes) what are the 2 typos of WBC?
Leukocytes) granulocytes: neutrophils (2)
Leukocytes) granulocytes: neutrophils, what does it granules contain?
hydrolytic enzymes & antibiotic proteins
Leukocytes) granulocytes: neutrophils , what does it have dispersed within?
Leukocytes) granulocytes: Eosinophils, (2)
Leukocytes) granulocytes: Eosinophils, has materials that respond to (2)
Leukocytes) granulocytes: Basophils, (2)
-large blue granules
Leukocytes) granulocytes: Basophils, found in (2)
Allergic and inflammatory reactions
Leukocytes) granulocytes: Basophils, what does it granules contain? (2)
Leukocytes) granulocytes: Basophils, what does heparin do?
Leukocytes) agranulocytes: why?
No granules visible
Leukocytes) agranulocytes: lymphocytes, what are they respobinle for? (2)
Antibody production by B-cells
Cellular immunity by t-cells
Leukocytes) agranulocytes: lymphocytes, are they phagocytic?
Leukocytes) agranulocytes: monocytes , transform into
Macrophages in areas of infection
Leukocytes) agranulocytes: monocytes , phagocytic?
Leukocytes) agranulocytes: monocytes , important for?
Signaling role in immune system
leucopoiesis) ? (2)
Starts with same hemocytoblast
- Colony stimulating factors stimulates to differentiate
- *different for every colony of leukocytes
What does RBC start with regarding production?
leucopoiesis) how long do they live?
- A few days to years
- *depends if they were sued to fight infections
leucopoiesis) are WBC capable of replicating?
Yes RBC cannot
leuckocyte disorders) leukemia
leuckocyte disorders) what can occur from leukemia?
Death from an infection not cancer
leuckocyte disorders) mononucleosis
-WBC infection by a virus like Epstein Barr virus that develops innaprotiate cells
leuckocyte disorders) leukemia is
Production of many wbcs
leuckocyte disorders) leukopenia
- lack of WBC production which can occur from immune suppression from cancer treatments & glucocorticoids treatments
Platelets) are called
Platelets) are they true cells
Platelets) were they true cells at one point in time?
Platelets) how do they start?
Platelets) small fragments (2)
Contain mitochondria and actomysin
Platelets) contain granules
Proteins involved in clotting
Platelets) platelet formation
Controlled by thrombopoietin that stimulates stem cell