2.9 Components of Blood

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efrain12
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297700
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2.9 Components of Blood
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2015-03-06 22:08:22
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AnP II
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Components of the blood
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  1. 3 functions of blood
    -transportation/distribution of substances

    • -maintenance of homeostasis
    • *transporting warm blood from core to outer surface where sweating will be cooling the blood off then transporting the cool blood back to the heart

    -protection by transporting wbcs
  2. Components of plasma)
    • -proteins + lipids
    • *hormones

    -dissolved components like ions, glucose, gases

    • -serum
    • *part of the plasma that do not contain clotting proteins
  3. Plasma maintenance) fluid maintenance
    • Consumed and removed by drinking and urinating
    • *kidneys
  4. Plasma maintenance) maintenance of salutes is kept by (5)
    -liver

    -kidney

    -intestine

    -endocrine gland

    -immune tissues
  5. Plasma maintenance) who maintains fluid maintenance?
    kidneys
  6. What are the 3 types of formed elements in plasma?
    -erythrocytes

    -leukocytes

    -platelets
  7. erythrocytes) are RBCs true cells?
    • no
    • *they once were when they were immature
  8. erythrocytes) structure (2)
    -cell membrane

    -cytoplasm with lipids, ATP, carbonic Anydrase , hemoglobin
  9. erythrocytes) which 3 organelle is it lacking?
    -mitochondria

    -nucleus

    -ribosomes
  10. erythrocytes) what does it carry a lot of?
    Hemoglobin because it needs to transport oxygen and co2
  11. erythrocytes) what is its main energy pathway ?
    Glycolysis
  12. erythrocytes) function: 2 main functions
    -transport O2 from lungs to tissues

    -transport CO2 from tissues to lungs
  13. Hemoglobin: what are the 4 protein chains it carries?
    2 alpha and 2 beta
  14. Hemoglobin: where does it carry the o2?
    On its iron that it carries in the center
  15. Hemoglobin: where does it carry the co2?
    On the protein chains `
  16. Production of erythrocytes) what's erythropoiesis?
    Process of RBC production
  17. Production of erythrocytes) as an embryo and fetus, whjere is it produced?
    Multiple tissues
  18. Production of erythrocytes) Aftfer birth (2)
    -bone marrow

    -lymph tissue
  19. Production of erythrocytes) adulthood
    -bone marrow certain regions
  20. How long is erythropoiesis?
    4 day process
  21. What is significant about stem cells?
    • They are plurally potent
    • *they can transfer into whatever cell they want
  22. Where are stem cells usually located?
    In bone marrow
  23. How does Erythropoietin begin?
    With stimulation of stem cell by specific hormone that makes the stem cell undergo mitosis & produce a daughter cell called proerythroblast. Then undergo steps to become a RBC
  24. Erythropoiesis ) what occurs because of the immense production of hemoglobin
    ? (2)(
    -gets rid of the nucleus for space for hemoglobin

    -ER breaks down at end of cycle
  25. Erythropoiesis ) Where does the protein that stimulates stem cell released by?
    kidney
  26. What dictates the increase or decrease of RBC SYNTHESIS?
    Hormonal control
  27. Erythropoiesis ) how is the kidney affected by prpuiction of RBC? (1+2)
    Kidneys are sensitive to oxygen levels...

    -not enough O2= release erythropoietin to stimulate stem cells in bone marrow

    -if a lot= then decrease erythropoietin
  28. What does the kidney release to control the production of RBC synthesis ?
    Erythropoietin
  29. Turnover of RBC) what's its shelf life? And what happens? (1+2)
    120 days then

    -plasma membrane fragments and lodges itself into spleen
  30. Turnover of RBC) role of spleen (2)
    Spleen traps RBC

    Macrophages within spleen destroys RBC and recycles the components
  31. Turnover of RBC) hemoglobin is ...
    Turn into heme + globin
  32. Turnover of RBC) heme is turned into?
    Iron + porphyrin ring
  33. Turnover of RBC) globin is turned into?
    Amino acids
  34. Turnover of RBC) iron is...
    Shuttled to liver or bone
  35. Turnover of RBC) porphyrin ring is used for...
    Used to make bilirubin which makes bile
  36. Erythrocytes disorders ) Anemia's:
    - few red blood cells

    -decrease hemoglobin content

    • -abnormal hemoglobin
    • *sickle cell anemia's
  37. Erythrocytes disorders) polycythemia
    Excess numbers of RBC which turns blood into sludge
  38. Leukocytes) are these true cells?
    Yes, they have all organelle and nucleus
  39. Leukocytes) hemogo9lbin
    It lacks this
  40. Leukocytes) which is larger RBC or WBC?
    wbc
  41. Leukocytes) what is it involved in?
    Immune system
  42. Leukocytes) mobile?
    • Independently mobile so it can move out of blood vessel
    • *diapedesis
  43. Leukocytes) granulocytes: why are they called this way?
    They have granules visible
  44. Leukocytes) what are the 2 typos of WBC?
    -granulocytes

    -agranulocytes
  45. Leukocytes) granulocytes: neutrophils (2)
    -tailored nuclei

    -p[hagocytic
  46. Leukocytes) granulocytes: neutrophils, what does it granules contain?
    hydrolytic enzymes & antibiotic proteins
  47. Leukocytes) granulocytes: neutrophils , what does it have dispersed within?
    proteasomes
  48. Leukocytes) granulocytes: Eosinophils, (2)
    -red granules

    -weak phagocytic
  49. Leukocytes) granulocytes: Eosinophils, has materials that respond to (2)
    -parasitic infections

    -allergic responses
  50. Leukocytes) granulocytes: Basophils, (2)
    -large blue granules

    -not phagocytic
  51. Leukocytes) granulocytes: Basophils, found in (2)
    Allergic and inflammatory reactions
  52. Leukocytes) granulocytes: Basophils, what does it granules contain? (2)
    -histamine

    -heparin
  53. Leukocytes) granulocytes: Basophils, what does heparin do?
    Inhibits clotting
  54. Leukocytes) agranulocytes: why?
    No granules visible
  55. Leukocytes) agranulocytes: lymphocytes, what are they respobinle for? (2)
    Antibody production by B-cells

    Cellular immunity by t-cells
  56. Leukocytes) agranulocytes: lymphocytes, are they phagocytic?
    no
  57. Leukocytes) agranulocytes: monocytes , transform into
    Macrophages in areas of infection
  58. Leukocytes) agranulocytes: monocytes , phagocytic?
    yes
  59. Leukocytes) agranulocytes: monocytes , important for?
    Signaling role in immune system
  60. leucopoiesis) ? (2)
    Starts with same hemocytoblast

    • Colony stimulating factors stimulates to differentiate
    • *different for every colony of leukocytes
  61. What does RBC start with regarding production?
    • hemocytoblast
    • *like wbc
  62. leucopoiesis) how long do they live?
    • A few days to years
    • *depends if they were sued to fight infections
  63. leucopoiesis) are WBC capable of replicating?
    Yes RBC cannot
  64. leuckocyte disorders) leukemia
    Cancer
  65. leuckocyte disorders) what can occur from leukemia?
    Death from an infection not cancer
  66. leuckocyte disorders) mononucleosis
    -WBC infection by a virus like Epstein Barr virus that develops innaprotiate cells
  67. leuckocyte disorders) leukemia is
    Production of many wbcs
  68. leuckocyte disorders) leukopenia
    - lack of WBC production which can occur from immune suppression from cancer treatments & glucocorticoids treatments
  69. Platelets) are called
    thrombocytes
  70. Platelets) are they true cells
    no
  71. Platelets) were they true cells at one point in time?
    yes
  72. Platelets) how do they start?
    hemocytoblast
  73. Platelets) small fragments (2)
    Contain mitochondria and actomysin
  74. Platelets) contain granules
    Proteins involved in clotting
  75. Platelets) platelet formation
    Controlled by thrombopoietin that stimulates stem cell

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