Card Set Information
What is the most effective agents for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia?
Which lipid lowering agents are the most useful in lowering triglyceride levels?
How do fish oil supplements acts as a lipid lowering agent?
Fish oil supplements
omega-3 fatty acids
which are used in the treatment of
What are the effects of Fibrates- Gemifibrozil, Clofibrate, Bezafibrate, Fenofibrate on each of the following:
What are the effects of Niacin on each of the following:
What are the effects of Ezetimibe on each of the following:
What are the effects of Bile acid resins - Cholestyramine, Colestipol, Colesevelam) on each of the following:
: Slightly ⇧
: Slightly ⇧
What are the effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibits - STATINS on each of the following:
What is the MOA and use of Tadafil?
mooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum, blood flow, penile erection
How do Class IC antiarrythmics exhibit strong use dependence?
phase 0 depolarization
prolongs ventricular depolarization
⇧ QRS duration to a greater extent at
(e.g in cardiac stress testing).
How does Acetyl-CoA activate gluconeogenesis?
Pyruvate ⇨ Oxaloacetate
What increases the activity of pyruvate carboxylase?
Biotin is required in which part of gluconeognesis?
Pyruvate ⇨ Oxaloacetate
What are the effects of alanine in gluconeogenesis/ glycolysis?
Phosphoenolpyruvate to Pyruvate.
What role does citrate play in gluconeogenesis?
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to Fructose 6 phosphate
Think fruits (citrate and fructose are fruity)
The nitrogen atoms in the urea molecule are derived from?
What causes the formation of a granuloma?
which induce differentiation to
1 helper cells
TH1 cells produce
to stimulate macrophages
What is the function of the TH2 cell?
for parasitic defense
production by B cells
What stimulates isotype switching to IgE?
What cytokine promotes T helper differentiation into the TH2 subset?
What stimulates isotype switching to IgA?
What cytokine stimulates growth and differentiation of eosinophils?
What is the function of IL-5?
Promotes growth and differentiation of
Enhances class switching to
Mucicarmine stain is used to detect?
What type of hypersensitivity plats an important role in the host defense against M.tuberculosis?
Delayes Type hypersensitivity
What disease does the Calcivirus cause?
What viral family does the Norovirus belong to and what disease does it cause?
What viral family does Rubella belong to?
What viral family does Western equine encephalitis belong to?
What viral family does Eastern equine encephalitis belong to?
What causes gene mutations in HIV?
Highly active ANTIRETROVIRAL therapy
causes drug resistance and a high mutation rate of the HIV genome
What does the pol gene of HIV code for?
Patient being treated for tuberculosis experiences optic neuropathy (red-green colored blindness). What drug causes this adverse effect?
What side effects are associated with the use of Ethambutol?
What are the side effects of Aminoglycosides?
vertigo, deafness, tinnitus
What are the side effects of Chloramphenicol?
Anemia/ Aplastic anemia
Grey baby syndrome
What are the side effects of Dapsone therapy?
What are the side effects of Trimethoprim therapy?
What is the function of endothelin?
What causes familial Pulmonary arterial hypertension?
Due to mutation in
bone morphogenic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2)
On cardiac auscultaion, this murmur is characterized by a snap followed by a rumbling diastolic murmur.
What is the pathology seen below in the lung?
Non caseating granuloma
Alcoholic insists he can be a controlled drinker is using which defense mechanism?
What is fantasy defense mechanism? Give an example
Substituting imaginary scenarios
Son has osteosarcoma, underwent amputation, prognosis is poor. Mother says she is not worried about prognosis and says someday he will fulfill his dream of playing in the major league.
Patient presents with breathing difficulty secondary to pain with inspiration. The pain is carried by which nerve?
Tumors located in the lung apex are called?
Tumors located in the superior sulcus are called?
Where are Pancoast tumors located?
apex/ superior sulcus
of the lung
Describe the symptoms of a Pancost tumor.
Severe pain in the shoulder region that radiates toward the axilla and scapula.
due to the involvement of the
cervical sympathetic ganglia.
ptsosis, miosis and anhydrosis
. Compression of the
of the upper extremity.
. Extension of the tumor into the
may lead to
spinal cord compression and paraplegia
Compared to the control medication, how many patients need to be treated with Superstatin to prevent one additional myocardial infarction?
Number needed to treat
represents the number of patients that need to be treated with a medication in order to
prevent an additional negative outcome.
NNT= 1/ ARR
ARR= Event rate control- Event rate treatment
ARR= (10/1000= 0.01 or 1%)- (25/1000= 0.25 or 2.5%)
67 patients need to be treated with Superstatin to prevent an additional myocardial infarction.
How do we calculate number needed to treat?
NNT= 1/ARR (Absolute risk reduction)
What should be removed from a patient's diet with aldolase B deficiency?
What makes up sucrose?
What makes up maltose?
What makes up lactose?
The conversion of pro-carcinogens to carcinogens/ active metabolites depends on the activity of which enzyme?
Cytochrome P450 MONOOXYGENASE
What is the pathology below?
What is the pathology below?
What is ecthyma gangrenosum? What causes it and which patients are commonly affected?
cutaneous nectrotic disease
neutropenic patients, hospitalized patients, patients with burns and chronic indwelling catheters.
What is the action of Enfuvirtide?
Binds to the
heptad repeat 1 (HR1)
prevents fusion of viral membrane with the target cellular membrane.
As a result, the HIV genome entry is denied into uninfected CD4+ T cells
This drug binds gp41, inhibitng viral entry of HIV.
HIV DNA synthesis from the RNA template is impaired by?
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
HIV polyprotein cleavage is prevented by which medication?
HIV DNA integration into the host genome is catalyzed by?
HIV viral integrase
What is the MOA of Raltegravir?
preventing HIV genome integration into host cell chromosome
This drug inhibits HIV viral integrase.
CD4 is a cell surface marker for?
CD8+ cytotoxic T cells
CD15 is a cell surface marker for?
What cell surface markers are on Reed-Sternberg cells?
The best treatment of chronic dry cough caused by an ACE inhibitor is replacement of this drug with?
Angiotensin receptor blocker
What can be used to close the PDA?
What is the effect of indomethacin on the PDA?
Closes the PD
inhibiting PGE1 synthesis
What can be used to maintain a PDA?
What are the effects of prostaglandins on the PDA?
Closes the PDA
What is the agent of choice for prevention and treatment of post-myocardial infarction arrythmias?
Which drug has the highest selectivity for ischemic myocardium compared to normal cardiac tissue?
What complication can arise from the use of Ticlopidine?
fever with mouth blisters
How can we treat von Willebrand disease?
releases vWF stored in endothelium
This drug releases vWF stored as endothelium.
What is enuresis and how do we treat?
Involuntary urination (bed wetting)
oral desmopressin acetate (DDAVP)
mRNA is stored in this structure for future translation.
What is the function of P bodies?
for future translation
Contain exonucleases, mRNA decapping enzymes and micro-RNA induced mRNA silencing
Injury to this nerve often results from a fracture of the neck of the fibula.
Common peroneal nerve