Ch 6

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Ch 6
2015-03-06 17:34:43
Oceanography ch exam 2
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  1. Meridional Overturning circulation (MOC) the thermohaline circulation transports...
    heat energy, salt, and dissolved gases over great distances and to the rat depths in the world ocean.
  2. Planetary-Scale Systems are...
    weather phenomena operating at the largest spatial scale of atmospheric circulation; includes the global wind belts and semi permanent pressure systems.
  3. Synoptic-scale systems is a weather phenomena operating...
    at the continental or oceanic spatial scale, including migrating tropical and extrapoical cyclones. These systems can last from days to weeks.
  4. Mesoscale systems are weather phenomena that are...
    so small they influence atmospheric conditions over only a portion of a city, includes thunderstorms and sea breezes. These systems are 1-60 miles and last form hours to a day or so.
  5. Microscale systems are weather phenomena...
    representing the smallest spatial subdivision of atmospheric circulation, such as a weak tornado. These systems have dimensions of 3 ft or less than a mile that last from seconds to an hour or so.
  6. Subtropical anticyclones..
    a massive semi-permanent high pressure system the occurs in subtropical latitudes of both hemispheres; a major control of climate.
  7. Horse latitudes is a nautical term describing...
    the latitude belts over the ocean at approximately 30-35 degrees N and S where winds are usually light
  8. "High" in the area would mean that a...
    dome of air that exerts relatively high surface air pressure compared to the surrounding air and is usually associated with fair weather; same as as anticyclone.
  9. "Low" in the area would mean...
    an area of relatively low atmospheric pressure often associated with clouds and precipitation, same as a cyclone.
  10. Trade Winds is the wind system that occupys most of the tropics, it is a major component in..
    the planetary-scale circulation of the atmosphere. Trade winds blow from the northeast in the Norther Hem and Southeast in the Southern Hem.
  11. Mixed layer is the..
    surface layer of the ocean that is mixed by the action of waves and tides sot that the waters are nearly isothermal and isohaline; underlain by a pycnocline.
  12. Pycnocline is the layer of ocean water where density...
    increases rapidly with depth; in low and middle latitudes situated between the mixed layer and deep layer.
  13. Thermocline a layer of water where the temperature...
    decreases rapidly with increasing depth.
  14. Halocline is a layer of water characterized by...
    a relatively large change in salinity with increasing depth.
  15. Deep Layer is..
    dark, cold nearly isothermal ocean water below the pycnocline; accounts for most of the ocean's mass.
  16. Stable System
    a system that tend to persist in its current state without changing and, following a disturbance, tends to return to its original state.
  17. Unstable system
    following a disturbance tends to not return to its original state or condition.
  18. Neutrally Stable System
    following a disturbance, doesn't return to its initial state and is easily mixed.
  19. Ekman Spiral, in response to a steady wind blowing over the ocean surface, water..
    at an increasing depths moves in directions moe and more to the right.
  20. Ekman transport is the..
    net transport of water due to the ekman spiral, 90 degrees to the right of the surface wind in the northern hem and 90 degrees to the left of the surface wind int eh southern hem
  21. Geostrophic flow is the..
    Horizontal movement of the surface water parallel to ocean height contours and arising from a balance between the pressure gradient force and the coriolis effect.
  22. Gyre refers to the nearly..
    circular motion of surface ocean currents in each of the major ocean basin centered under subtropical high-pressure systems. From above they rotate clockwise in the north, and counterclockwise in the south.
  23. Subtropical Gyres are...
    large scale roughly circular surface current systems in the ocean basins.
  24. Subpolar gyres are
    roughly circular suface current systems, smaller than their subtropical counterparts. orrcu at high latitudes of the north hem.
  25. Intertropical convergent zones...
    A narrow, discontinuous belt of convective clouds and thunderstorms paralleling the equator and making the convergence of the trade winds of the two hemispheres; shifts north and south seasonally.
  26. Doldrums are an east-west....
    ...equatorial belt of light and variable surface winds where the trade winds of the two hemispheres converge
  27. Capillary Waves
    Small ocean waves with a wavelength of less than 1.7 cm.
  28. Wave base
    A depth of about one half wavelength, where the diameter of the orbits of water particles in waves is essentially zero; the depth below where water is not affected by surface waves.
  29. Fetch is the distance...
    the wind blows over a continuous water surface.
  30. Swells are large long-period...
    ocean waves that radiate away from the region where they were generated by strong storm winds.
  31. Wave Celerity is the rate a...
    surface wave progresses outward in still water from the point where the water was disturbed.
  32. Deepwater Wave is a wave...
    on the surface that had a depth that is more that one-half the wavelength.
  33. Transitional waves
    is a wave entering water having a depth of between one twentieth and one half of the wavelength.
  34. Breaker wave is..
    The collapsing of a wave as it becomes steeper and less stable upon entering shoaling water.
  35. Bubble Injection is a mechanisms of..
    gas transfer at the air/sea interface where breaking waves introduce foam composed of small bubbles below the surface greatly enhancing exchange rates.
  36. Seich
    a rhythmic oscillation of water in an enclosed basin or partially enclose coastal inlet; type of standing wave.
  37. Internal waves..
    waves that form and propagate well below the sea surface along the boundary between layers of water that differ in density.
  38. Law of universal gravitation..
    the force of attraction between two objects is directly proportional tot he product of the masses inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
  39. Tidal Day...
    the moon-based day based on the interval of time between two successive passes of the moon over a meridian. (24hrs and 50 mins)
  40. Diurnal tide is an
    astronomical tide with only one high water (high tide) and one low water occurring each lunar day.
  41. Spring tide is an
    astronomical tide occurring twice each month at or near the times of new moon and full moon
  42. Neap tides
    an astronomical tide that have the least monthly tidal range occurring at the fist and third quarter phases of the moon
  43. Tidal currents...
    alternating horizontal movements of after accompanying the rise and fall of astronomical tides.
  44. Ebb tides
    tidal currents flowing seaward with falling sea levels.
  45. Flood tides
    Tidal currents directed toward land, causing water levels to rise in harbors and rivers.
  46. Tsunami
    a rapidly propagating shallow water ocean wave that develops when a submarine earthquake, landslide or volcano eruption disturbs ocean water.