Medical Terminology #8

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Medical Terminology #8
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2015-03-06 19:18:03
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Medical Terminology
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Medical Terminology #8
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  1. brain and spinal cord
    central nervous system (CNS)
  2. portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium
    brain
  3. largest portion of the brain; divided into right and left halves, known as cerebral hemispheres, which are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum
    cerebrum
  4. responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
    frontal lobe
  5. responsible for sensation such as pain, temperature, and touch
    parietal lobe
  6. responsible for vision
    occipital lobe
  7. responsible for higher mental functions
    cerebral cortex
  8. responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
    thalamus or diencephalon
  9. convolutions of the cerebral hemispheres
    gyri
  10. shallow grooves that separate gyri
    sulci
  11. deep grooves in the brain
    fissures
  12. responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
    cerebellum
  13. responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature
    brainstem
  14. series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
    ventricles
  15. plasm-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  16. responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
    spinal cord
  17. three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater
    meninges
  18. nerves that branch from the central nervous system including nerves of the brain and spinal cord
    peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  19. 12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
    cranial nerves
  20. 31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
    spinal nerves
  21. nerves the conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain; afferent nerves
    sensory nerves
  22. nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands; efferent nerves
    motor nerves
  23. nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various gland
    autonomic nervous system
  24. control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus
    hypothalamus
  25. division of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned primarily when preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
    sympathetic nervous system
  26. division of the autonomic nervous that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
    parasympathetic nervous system
  27. impairment because of localized brain injury that affects the understanding, retrieving, and formulating of meaningful and sequential elements of language, as demonstrated by an inability to use or comprehend words; occurs as a result of a stroke, head trauma, or disease
    aphasia or dysphasia
  28. a general term referring to levels of decreased consciousness with varying responsiveness
    coma
  29. a state of mental confusion caused by disturbances in cerebral function; the many causes include fever, shock, and drug overdose
    delirium
  30. an impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion
    dementia
  31. loss or impairment of muscle function
    motor deficit
  32. loss or impairment of sensation
    sensory deficit
  33. pain along the course of a nerve
    neuralgia
  34. temporary or permanent loss of motor control
    paralysis
  35. defective or absent muscle control caused by a nerve lesion
    flaccid paralysis
  36. stiff and awkward muscle control caused by a central nervous system disorder
    spastic paralysis
  37. partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
    hemiparesis
  38. pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve, caused by compression or trauma of the nerve or its roots
    sciatica
  39. sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from an abnormal firing of nerve impulses
    seizure
  40. to pull together
    convlusion
  41. fainting
    syncope
  42. evoking a response by touching
    tactile stimulation
  43. increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
    hyperesthesia
  44. abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause
    paresthesia
  45. any of many types of loss of neurologic function involving interpretation of sensory information
    agnosia
  46. inability to judge the form of an object by touch
    astereognosis
  47. inability to locate a sensation properly, such as an inability to locate a point touched on the body
    atopognosis
  48. disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
    Alzheimer disease
  49. conditon of progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in total loss of voluntary muscles control
    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Lou Gehrig disease
  50. condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth
    cerebral palsy (CP)
  51. disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessel of the brain
    cerebrovascular disease
  52. hardening of the arteries of the brain
    cerebral arteriosclerosis
  53. condition of lipid buildup within the blood vessels of the brain
    cerebral atherosclerosis
  54. dilation of a blood vessel in the bran
    cerebral aneurysm
  55. presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel of the brain
    cerebral thrombosis
  56. obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
    cerebral embolism
  57. damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease, such as occlusion of a blood vessel by a thrombus or embolus or intracranial hemorrhage after rupture of an aneurysm
    cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or stroke
  58. brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain, usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurologic deficit
    transient ischemic attack (TIA)
  59. inflammation of the brain
    encephalitis
  60. disorder affecting the central nervous system; characterized by recurrent seizures
    epilepsy
  61. stiffening-jerking; a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups
    tonic-clonic seizure
  62. seizure involvement a brief loss of consciousness without motor involvement
    absence seizure
  63. seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms
    partial seizure
  64. tumor of the glial cells graded according to degree of malignancy
    glioma
  65. protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
    herniated disk
  66. viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves, characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilateral
    herpers zoster
  67. hereditary disease of the central nervous system characterized by bizarre, involuntary body movement progressive dementia
    Huntington disease
  68. abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain as a result of developmental anomalies, infection, injury, or tumor
    hydrocephalus
  69. benign tumor of the coverings of the brain
    meningioma
  70. inflammation of the meninges
    meningitis
  71. paroxysmal attacks of mostly unilateral headache, often accompanied by disordered vision, nausea, or vomiting, lasting hours or days and caused by dilation of arteries
    migraine headache
  72. disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurologic dysfunction followed by recovery
    multiple sclerosis
  73. autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromusclar junction, causing a progressive decrease in muscle strength activity resume and strength returns after a period of rest
    myasthenia gravis
  74. inflammation of the spinal cord
    myelitis
  75. sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis, and dreams intruding while awake
    narcolepsy
  76. congential deformities of the brain and spinal cord caused by incomplete development of the neural tube, the embryonic structure that forms the nervous system
    neural tube defects
  77. defect in closure of the cephalic portion of the neural tube that results in incomplete development of the brain and bones of the skull
    anencephaly
  78. defect in development of the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of the meninges or of the meninges and spinal cord
    spina bifida
  79. condition of slowly progressive degeneration in an area of the brainstem resulting in a decrease of dopamine
    Parkinson disease
  80. paralysis
    plegia
  81. paralysis on one side of the body
    hemiplegia
  82. paralysis from the waist down
    paraplegia
  83. paralysis of all four limbs
    quadriplegia
  84. inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
    poliomyelitis
  85. inflammation involving two or more nerves, often caused by a nutritional deficiency, such as lack of thiamine
    polyneuritis
  86. periods of breathing cessation that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
    sleep apnea
  87. treatment of malignancies, infections, and other disease with chemical agents to destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
    chemotherapy
  88. treatment of neoplastic disease using ionizing radiation to impede the proliferation of malignant cells
    radiation therapy
  89. radiation treatment to inactive malignant lesion using multiple, precise external radiation beams focused on a target with the aid of a sterotactic frame and imaging such as CT, MRI, or angiography
    sereotactic or stereotaxic radiosurgery
  90. mechanical device used to localize a point in space, targeting a precise site
    sterotactic or stereotaxic frame
  91. agent that relieves pain
    analgesic
  92. agent that prevents or lessens convulsion
    anticonvulsant
  93. agent that induces sleep
    hypnotic
  94. emotional feeling or mood
    affect
  95. significantly dulled emotional tone or outward reaction
    flat affect
  96. a lack of interest or display of emotion
    apathy
  97. a state of unresponsiveness to one's outside environment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate
    catatonia
  98. a persistent belief that has no basis in reality
    delusion
  99. a person's false belief that he or she possesses great wealth, intelligence, or power
    grandiose delusion
  100. a person's false belief that someone is plotting against him or her with the intent to harm
    persecutory delusion
  101. a restless, dissatified mood
    dysphoria
  102. an exaggerated, unfounded feeling of well-being
    euphoria
  103. a false perception of the sense for which there is no reality
    hallucination
  104. the formation of thoughts or ideas
    ideation
  105. state of abnormal elation and increased activity
    mania
  106. a psychological condition in which anxiety is prominent
    neurosis
  107. a mental condition characterized by distortion of reality resulting in the inability to communicate or function within one's enviornment
    psychosis
  108. thought that lacks clear processing or logical direction
    thought disorder

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