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Chordata is one phyla and includes all animals
with a nerve cord, gill slits and supporting cord along the back.
The kingdom Animalia includes
20 major phyla (singular, phylum)
Animals with segmented, bony spinal columns; includes fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
The field that establishes the rules of classification
Organisms are classified first on the basis of
Similarities based on a common ancestor
Basic physical similarities must reflect evolutionary descent in order for them to be useful.
Similarities based on common function, with no assumed common evolutionary descent.
Separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms.
Define Evolutionary systematics
A traditional approach in which presumed ancestors and descendants are traced in time by analysis of homologous characters.
Attempts to make rigorous evolutionary interpretations based solely on analysis of certain types of homologous characters (those considered to be derived characters).
Lineage, or a group of organisms sharing a common ancestor.
The group includes the common ancestor and all descendants.
Characters inherited by a group of organisms from a remote ancestor and not diagnostic of groups that diverged after the character appeared; also called primitive.
Derived (Modified) Characters
that are modified from the ancestral condition and thus are diagnostic of particular evolutionary lineages.
Small to medium-sized ground-living carnivorous dinosaurs, dated to approximately 150 mya and thought to be related to birds.
Relating to specific character traits shared in common between two life-forms and considered the most useful for making evolutionary interpretations.
The presence of feathers in the proposed relationship between some (theropod) dinosaurs and birds is an example
A chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by evolutionary systematics.
It contains a time component and implies ancestor descendant relationships.
A chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by cladistic analysis.
It’s based solely on interpretation of shared derived characters.
It contains no time component and does not imply ancestor-descendant relationships.
Cladograms vs. Phylogenetic Trees
How are these two approaches combined by physical anthropologists?
Definition of Species
The biological species concept emphasizes interbreeding and reproductive isolation
Process by which a new species evolves from a prior species.
Speciation is the most basic process in macroevolution.
Speciation and the Processes of Evolution
Why is an understanding of the various processes of evolution important to understanding speciation?
Identifying individual variation, age changes, variation due to sex
Variation accounted for by individual, age, and sex differences seen within every biological species
Variation representing differences between reproductively isolated groups
A group of species composed of members more closely related to each other than to species from any other genus
Members of the same genus should all share derived characters not seen in members of other genera
members of the same genus share the same broad adaptive zone.
occurs very slowly as water carrying minerals, such as silica or iron, seeps into the tiny spaces within a bone. In some cases, the original minerals within the bone or tooth can be completely replaced.
is the study of how bones and other materials come to be buried in the earth and preserved as fossils
Geological Time Scale
The organization of earth history into eras, periods, and epochs; commonly used by geologists and paleoanthropologists.
Vertebrates appeared 500 mya.
Reptiles were dominant land vertebrate, placental mammals appeared 70 mya.
Cenozoic Era "Age of Mammals"
Divided into Tertiary and Quaternary periods and 7 epochs.
The movement of continents on sliding plates of the earth’s surface.
- As a result, the positions of large landmasses have shifted drastically during the earth’s
Reptilian teeth are
Homodont same shape teeth
Mammals teeth are
heterodont, they have different kinds of teeth; incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.
Able to maintain internal body temperature by producing energy through metabolic processes within cells; characteristic of mammals, birds, and perhaps some dinosaurs.
Name 3 Major Mammalian Groups
- 1) Monotremes
- 2) Marsupial
- 3) Placental