Anthropology 101 Chapter 5

Card Set Information

Anthropology 101 Chapter 5
2015-03-06 18:30:30
ers optional comma separated list eg science biology Description Anthropology101

Anthropology 101 Chapter 5
Show Answers:

  1. Chordata is one phyla and includes all animals
    with a nerve cord, gill slits and supporting cord along the back.
  2. The kingdom Animalia includes
    20 major phyla (singular, phylum)
  3. Vertebrates
    Animals with segmented, bony spinal columns; includes fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
  4. The field that establishes the rules of classification
  5. Organisms are classified first on the basis of
    Physical similarities.
  6. Define Homologies
    Similarities based on a common ancestor

    Basic physical similarities must reflect evolutionary descent in order for them to be useful.
  7. Define Analogies
    Similarities based on common function, with no assumed common evolutionary descent.
  8. Define Homoplasy
    Separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms.
  9. Define Evolutionary systematics
    A traditional approach in which presumed ancestors and descendants are traced in time by analysis of homologous characters.
  10. Define Cladistics
    Attempts to make rigorous evolutionary interpretations based solely on analysis of certain types of homologous characters (those considered to be derived characters).
  11. Define CLADE
    Lineage, or a group of organisms sharing a common ancestor.

    The group includes the common ancestor and all descendants.
  12. Ancestral Characters
    Characters inherited by a group of organisms from a remote ancestor and not diagnostic of groups that diverged after the character appeared; also called primitive.
  13. Derived (Modified) Characters
    that are modified from the ancestral condition and thus are diagnostic of particular evolutionary lineages.
  14. Theropods
    Small to medium-sized ground-living carnivorous dinosaurs, dated to approximately 150 mya and thought to be related to birds.
  15. Shared Derived
    Relating to specific character traits shared in common between two life-forms and considered the most useful for making evolutionary interpretations.

    The presence of feathers in the proposed relationship between some (theropod) dinosaurs and birds is an example
  16. Phylogenetic Tree
    A chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by evolutionary systematics.

    It contains a time component and implies ancestor descendant relationships.
  17. Cladogram
    A chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by cladistic analysis.

    It’s based solely on interpretation of shared derived characters.

    It contains no time component and does not imply ancestor-descendant relationships.
  18. Cladograms vs. Phylogenetic Trees

    How are these two approaches combined by physical anthropologists?
  19. Definition of Species
    The biological species concept emphasizes interbreeding and reproductive isolation
  20. Speciation
    Process by which a new species evolves from a prior species.

    Speciation is the most basic process in macroevolution.
  21. Speciation and the Processes of Evolution
    Why is an understanding of the various processes of evolution important to understanding speciation?
  22. Sexual dimorphism
    Identifying individual variation, age changes, variation due to sex
  23. Intraspecific variation
    Variation accounted for by individual, age, and sex differences seen within every biological species
  24. Interspecific variation
    Variation representing differences between reproductively isolated groups
  25. A Genus
    A group of species composed of members more closely related to each other than to species from any other genus

    Members of the same genus should all share derived characters not seen in members of other genera
  26. Species
    members of the same genus share the same broad adaptive zone.
  27. Mineralization
    occurs very slowly as water carrying minerals, such as silica or iron, seeps into the tiny spaces within a bone. In some cases, the original minerals within the bone or tooth can be completely replaced.
  28. Taphonomy
    is the study of how bones and other materials come to be buried in the earth and preserved as fossils
  29. Geological Time Scale
    The organization of earth history into eras, periods, and epochs; commonly used by geologists and paleoanthropologists.
  30. Geological Eras
    • Paleozoic
    • Mesozoic 
    • Cenozoic
  31. Paleozoic Era
    Vertebrates appeared 500 mya.
  32. Mesozoic Era
    Reptiles were dominant land vertebrate, placental mammals appeared 70 mya.
  33. Cenozoic Era "Age of Mammals"
    Divided into Tertiary and Quaternary periods and 7 epochs.
  34. Continental Drift
    The movement of continents on sliding plates of the earth’s surface.

    • As a result, the positions of large landmasses have shifted drastically during the earth’s
    • history.
  35. Reptilian teeth are
    Homodont same shape teeth
  36. Mammals teeth are
    heterodont, they have different kinds of teeth; incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.
  37. Endothermic
    Able to maintain internal body temperature by producing energy through metabolic processes within cells; characteristic of mammals, birds, and perhaps some dinosaurs.
  38. Name 3 Major Mammalian Groups
    • 1) Monotremes
    • 2) Marsupial
    • 3) Placental