2.8 Circulatory physiology

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efrain12
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297788
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2.8 Circulatory physiology
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2015-03-07 13:35:33
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AnP II
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Circulatory physiology
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  1. Fluid dynamics) Pressure : what is blood pressure?
    Force per unit areas exerted on the wall of the blood vessel by the blood contained within
  2. What are they 3 categories of fluid dynamics?
    -pressure

    -flow

    -resistance
  3. How is blood flow driven?
    By a drop in pressure form beginning to end of circulatory pathway
  4. Factors that affect blood pressure) Compliance refers to
    streachability of the artery
  5. Factors that affect blood pressure) how does compliance affect blood pressure?
    The more compliance the less pressure build up bc it is accommodating the volume entering so not a lot of pressure being built
  6. Factors that affect blood pressure) cardiac cycle: Systole
    Pressure generated during contraction
  7. Factors that affect blood pressure) cardiac cycle: diastole
    Pressure maintained during relaxation
  8. Factors that affect blood pressure) location in the vascular system: Arteries,
    The pressure is at its highest there
  9. Factors that affect blood pressure) location in the vascular system: arteries , average pressure there?
    • The average pressure at the large arteries is 93.3 mm Hg
    • *number contains both systolic and diastolic
  10. Factors that affect blood pressure) location in the vascular system: What is pulse pressure ?
    • Difference between systolic and diastolic pressures
    • *120-80= 40 mm Hg
  11. Factors that affect blood pressure) location in the vascular system: what is mean arterial pressure?
    • Diastolic pressure + pulse pressure/3
    • *80 + 40/3 = 93.3 mm Hg
  12. Factors that affect blood pressure) location in the vascular system: capillaries, blood enter here at...
    40 mm Hg
  13. Factors that affect blood pressure) location in the vascular system: capillaries, blood pressure leaves the capillary beds at
    20 mm Hg
  14. Factors that affect blood pressure) location in the vascular system: veins, pressure enters veins at
    20 mm Hg
  15. Factors that affect blood pressure) location in the vascular system: veins, pressure leaves the veins at.
    • 0 mm hG
    • *vena cava
  16. Flow) 2 things that fall under this?
    -cardiac output

    -venous return
  17. Flow) cardiac output
    • The output to maintain volume flow
    • *Heart rate x Stroke volume
  18. Flow) venous return: 2 factors that help out
    -muscle pump

    -respiratory pump
  19. Flow) venous return: muscle pump
    Pumps blood from distal extremities back to the heart bc pressure is low in these areas so they need help to push it upwards
  20. Flow) venous return: respiratory pump  (2)
    vacuum

    Helps bring blood into the atrium
  21. Resistance) 3 factors
    -viscosity

    -length of vessel

    -diameter of vessel
  22. Resistance) viscosity (2)
    Thickness of blood

    -thicker the blood, greater resistance
  23. Resistance) viscosity , what is hematocrit?
    ratio that looks at cell components, particularly RBC divided by volume of blood
  24. Resistance) length of vessel
    Longer vessel greater resistance bc the blood has to travel further
  25. Resistance) diameter of vessel
    Smaller diameter, greater resistance
  26. Resistance) laminar flow
    • Fluid close to the sides of the tube is slowed by friction bc it rubs along the sides
    • *the middle part will flow easily
  27. Mathematical relationships) F= ΔP/R (1+2)
    -change of pressure from point a and b

    • --As delta P increase, flow will increase
    • --as resistance increases, flow will decrease
  28. Mathematical relationships: poiseuilles law
    Flow varies with 4th power of radius so change in radius is often used in by the body to control flow, pressure, and resistance
  29. 2 ways to measure blood pressure?
    • -externally
    • * Brachial artery

    • Internally
    • *catheter measures actual pressure
  30. Blood pressure control and maintenance) Short term,
    Neural reflex between vessels and brain

    *Stimulus > receptor > affront nerve > CNS > efferent Nerve > effector organ
  31. Blood pressure control and maintenance) Neural reflex between vessels and brain, schematic
    Volume or pressure of blood (stimulus) -> Baroreceptors (receptor) -> affront nerve -> Vasomotor centers in medulla (CNS) -> Sympathetic nerves (efferent nerve) -> blood vessels (effector organ)
  32. Blood pressure control and maintenance) NEURAL REFLEX between vessels and brain,  where are Baroreceptors located? (2)
    In arterial walls or carotid (above bifurcation) or aortic arch
  33. Blood pressure control and maintenance) NEURAL REFLEX between vessels and brain, why are Baroreceptors located in their locations? (2)
    -carotid= by the brain so monitor blood to brain

    -aortic= by the heart so monitors blood to heart
  34. Blood pressure control and maintenance) vasomotor centers in medulla, fucntion
    Integrate information being sent from the Baroreceptors in the blood vessels
  35. Blood pressure control and maintenance) vasomotor centers in medulla, what do they do after receiving signal from receptors?
    Sympathetic nerves (efferent) leave the medulla and extend to blood vessels (effector organ)
  36. Blood pressure control and maintenance) blood vessels are innervates by
    Sympathetic and parasympathetic but impacted greater from sympathetic
  37. Blood pressure control and maintenance) when blood vessels are innervates by sympathetic n.s they...
    cause the smooth muscle to contract which causes constriction of blood vessels so it increases resistance and decreases flow
  38. Blood pressure control and maintenance) Baroreceptors reflex: when large amount of blood enters aorta/carotid...(2)
    barocepretors are stretched vigorously and send impulse via affront nerves to vasomotor center

    • Stretch causes a decrease in sympathetic output (efferent nerve) causes vasodilator to decrease blood pressure
    • *the larger the amount of blood the more they stretch
  39. Blood pressure control and maintenance) Baroreceptors reflex: If there is amll amount of blood flowing in
    Baroreceptors will send that to vasomotor center and it will respond by contracting a little buit so increasing sympathetic innervation
  40. Blood pressure control and maintenance) chemical : Adrenal medulla
    -Norepinephrine and epinephrine to increase blood pressure
  41. Blood pressure control and maintenance) chemical : ANF atrial natriatuic factor
    • Decrease blood pressure
    • *vasodilator
  42. Blood pressure control and maintenance) chemical : what causes the release of ANF?
    Increased blood flow to atrial wall will stretch all causes release of ANF
  43. Blood pressure control and maintenance) chemical : angiotensin II
    vasocontircito
  44. Blood pressure control and maintenance) chemical : adrnela medulla
    vasocontirctor
  45. Blood pressure control and maintenance) chemical : nitric oxide (3)
    -vasodilator

    -secreted locally by endothelial cells

    -very ptoentn.
  46. Blood pressure control and maintenance) chemical : alcohol (2)
    -inhibits ADH

    • -drops BP through fluid loss
    • *indirectly affects BP
  47. Blood pressure control and maintenance) chemical : inflammatory chemicals
    Vasodilator, so it allows blood to travel to that area
  48. Blood pressure control and maintenance) chemical : Viagra is based on
    Nitric oxide
  49. Blood pressure control and maintenance) long term renal regulation : Modyfign blood volume (2()
    -ADH decrease urine output

    -aldosterone increase Na retention at kidney so decreases urine output because water follows Na
  50. Blood pressure control and maintenance) long term renal regulation :what do both ways work to do?
    Increase blood pressure
  51. Blood pressure control and maintenance) long term renal regulation : 2 ways kidney does this?
    -ADH

    -aldosterone
  52. Blood pressure control and maintenance) tissue perfusion: what is it?
    Getting blood to flow through tissues to deliver products & remove waste products
  53. Blood pressure control and maintenance) tissue perfusion: velocity
    Speed slows down once it gets to capillary beds bc it is important for it to allow products to be exchanged properly without racing out of there
  54. Blood pressure control and maintenance) tissue perfusion: total area of vascular bed, where is it the largest?>
    • vcapillary bed due to the abundant amount of capillaries
    • *potential space larger at caps than veins even though veins can hold more but that's more attributable to their elasticity
  55. Blood pressure control and maintenance) tissue perfusion: regulation of perfusion
    Opening up or closing capillary beds
  56. Blood pressure control and maintenance) tissue perfusion: regulation, local : (3)
    metabolic

    myogenic

    Long term autoregulation
  57. Blood pressure control and maintenance) tissue perfusion: local, metabolic
    • emtablikc functions like the amount of O2, Co2, pH levels present
    • *working out, opens cap beds to replacing o2 and take away co2
  58. Blood pressure control and maintenance) tissue perfusion: local, myogenic (1+2)
    Smooth muscle reflex

    -smooth msucel of arterials heading into cap beds

    --spinmhcter may close if a lot of blood is trying to flow in or open if not enough blood is coming in
  59. Blood pressure control and maintenance) tissue perfusion: local, long term autoregualtion
    New vessels

    -develop new vessel in areas that we use more like muscle developing direct pipeline to get more blood in
  60. Blood flow to specific tissues varies by
    • Varies by the functions that we are doing whether we are at rest or working out
    • *more blood will flow to skin and muscle when working out

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