2.2 Macro integration

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efrain12
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297838
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2.2 Macro integration
Updated:
2015-03-07 21:51:16
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Macro study guide
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  1. Be able to explain what is meant when we say TCA cycle is an amphibolic pathway ) (1+2)
    Has both anabolic and catabolic fucntions

    -oxidation of macros

    -production of precursors for many biosynthetic pathways
  2. Be able to describe how a protein may become a cho) (8)
    -primary structure of pretin are made of strings of aas

    -some AAs are capable of becoming pyruvate

    -private is gluconeogenic

    -pyruvate > OOA

    -OOA > malate to get out of mito

    -outside of Mito, Malate > OOA

    -OOA > PEP

    -PEP then goes through the rest of gluconeogenic pathways to become glucose
  3. Describe how a CHO could become a pro using the reaction where private become oxaloacetate (3)
    -private enters mitochondria & becomes OOA

    -OOA gets sent to urea cycle

    -OOA gets transaminated to become aspartate by glutamate
  4. Be able to describe how a pro becomes a fat (7)
    -primary structure of pro are made of strings of aas

    -hydrolyzed peptide bonds releases AAs

    -some AAs can become acetyl coa

    -acetyl coa can become citrate by pariing with OOA

    -Citrate comes out of Mito and splits into acetyl coa and ooa

    -Acetyl coa is turned into Maloney coa by carboxylase

    -Malonyl coa undergoes fatty acid synthesis then triacylglycerol synthesis
  5. Understand what makes an amino acid gluconeogenic or ketogenic or both)
    Determined by whether their carbon skeletons breaks down to acetyl coa or a gluconeogenic substrate like private, fumarate, a keteoglutarate
  6. Ratio of AMP: ATP  affects AMPK)
    • AMPK is activated by high AMP: ATP ratio * low glucose levels
    • *it sense low levels when the ratio is like that
  7. Role of AMPK in metabolism and its effect on Maloney coa) (4)
    -activates catabolic pathways to create ATP

    -stimulates glycolysis by phosphorylation enzymes that make products that inhibit gluconeogenesis

    -stimulate beta oxidation

    -increases the migration of GLUT4 to the cell membrane to pull glucose out of the blood
  8. Role of AMPK in metabolism and its effect on Maloney coa)
    • -AMPK inhibits synthesis of Maloney coa so FA area lowed into Mito for beta oxifdation
    • *Maloney coa inhibited this and allowed FA to convert into amlonyl coa in cytosol
    • **this build up of Maloney coa blocked carnitine shuttle system
  9. Describe fast-fed cycle, four phases, hormonal signaling and time spend in each stage ) what are 4 pahses
    -fed state

    -postabsorptive state

    -fasting state

    -starvation state
  10. Describe fast-fed cycle, four phases, hormonal signaling and time spend in each stage ) Fed state (2)
    -lasts until 3 hers after a meal

    -main hormone is insulin
  11. Describe fast-fed cycle, four phases, hormonal signaling and time spend in each stage ) postabsorptive state (2)
    -3-12/18 hours after last meal

    -main hormone: glucagon and epinephrine
  12. Describe fast-fed cycle, four phases, hormonal signaling and time spend in each stage ) fating state (2)
    -18 to 2 days after last meal

    -glucagon/epinephrine more intense than previous
  13. Describe fast-fed cycle, four phases, hormonal signaling and time spend in each stage ) starvation state
    -fully adapted states that lasts as long as several weeks in which they start burning fat stores to stave off organ proteins
  14. Describe the sorts of processes stimulated by insulin) (6)
    -increase glucose uptake in muscle and lover

    -increase glycogen synthesis in liver and muscle

    -decrease in glycogen breakdown in liver and msucle

    -increase glycolysis, acetyl coa production in muscle and liver

    - increase fatty acid synthesis  in liver
  15. Be able to describe some of the things that occur in each of the 4 stages of fest fast cycle) Fed state: (3)
    -glucose turned to fat when caloric intake is in excess & glycogen stores full

    -storage of fats in adipocytes

    -endogenous fat breakdown to get themselves into adipocytes from VLDL/LDL
  16. Be able to describe some of the things that occur in each of the 4 stages of fest fast cycle) Postabsorptive state : (5)
    -3 hers after a meal and we are out of exogenous glucose

    -gluconeogenesis begins using lactate from muscles and RBCs

    • -alanine from msucel sent to liver to become glucose
    • *alanine-glucose cycle

    -muscle undergoes its own glycogenolysis for local use

    -glycogenolysis major source of glucose
  17. Be able to describe some of the things that occur in each of the 4 stages of fest fast cycle) Fasting state (6)
    -18-48 hers after meal

    -hepatic.muscular glycogen gone

    -gluconeogenesis is in high gear

    -muscle pro major susbtrate for gluconeogenesis

    -glucagon increases

    -acetyl coa will be transformed to ketones
  18. Be able to describe some of the things that occur in each of the 4 stages of fest fast cycle) starvation state: (10)
    -protein preservation

    -does not want to break down vital organs so its burning fat stores

    -lipolysis dominates

    -ketones makes up 2/3 brain fuel supply

    -glycerol main gluconeogenic precursor

    -kidney begin glucoenogenses to assits

    -eventually ooa is gone, producing ketones bodies only

    -one fat gone, body goes after organ proteins

    -kidney releases NH3 to balance out ketoacidosis because it is alkaline

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