Transcranial Doppler

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Author:
lollybebe
ID:
297912
Filename:
Transcranial Doppler
Updated:
2015-03-08 22:51:43
Tags:
TCD
Folders:
Core II
Description:
TCD
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  1. What probe is used for transcranial Doppler?
    2 mHz
  2. What is important to remember when imaging through transorbital window?
    • 1.) Decrease power output
    • 2.) Shut eye
  3. When doing compressions of CCA what will you possibly see? (6)
    • 1.) No response or reaction
    • 2.) Flow increase
    • 3.) Flow decrease
    • 4.) Reversal of flow
    • 5.) To-Fro pattern
    • 6.) Total cessation of flow
  4. What is the formula for PI?
    PI = PSV - PEDV / Mean velocity
  5. What is the normal PI for TCD?
    0.80 to 1.20
  6. What if PI is less than 0.80...

    Called/Means what?

    From what two things?
    Lower pulsality

    • 1.) stenosis of the supplying artery
    • 2.) AVM feeders
  7. What if PI is greater than 1.20...

    Called/Means what?

    From what 3 things?
    Higher pulsality

    • 1.) Larger aneurysm
    • 2.) Increased intracranial pressure
    • 3.) Microvascular disease
  8. When vessels dilate what happens to the PI?
    PI decreases
  9. What are the four levels of SAH?
    • 1.) < 80cm/sec = normal
    • 2.) 80-120 cm/sec = moderate spasm
    • 3.) 120-140 cm/sec = severe spasm
    • 4.) > 140 cm/sec = severe causing lots of damage
  10. What will be seen when TCD used to determine brain death?

    Normal?
    Abnormal?
    Normal- sharp high resistance, low volume, low velocities

    Abnormal- Dampened waveform
  11. What are some treatments for AVMs in the intracranial? (2)
    • 1.) Radiosurgery
    • 2.) Endovascular treatment
  12. What 3 things are sign can be seen with TCD because it has 3 flow abnormalities?
    • 1.) increased flow velocity
    • 2.) reduced pulsatility
    • 3.) reduced responsiveness to CO2
  13. Velocity maps show color changes displayed __________.
    vertically
  14. Variance maps show color changes displayed ______________.
    horizontally
  15. Color Doppler displays what?
    velocities throughout the scan field
  16. Power Doppler estimates the?
    strength of the Doppler shift from each location.

    Ignores velocity
  17. What are the advantages of power Doppler? (3)
    • 1.) sensitive to slow flow
    • 2.) never aliases
    • 3.) angle does not effect it
  18. What are the disadvantages of power Doppler? (2)
    • 1.) cannot determine direction
    • 2.) frame rates drop
  19. What is packet size?
    how many sample areas per a line
  20. What is line density?
    how many lines in the color box area
  21. Who  is responsible for ensuring that diagnostic US machines maintain good safety records?
    The American Institute of US in Medicine
  22. What two things do gray-scale US use?
    1.) The distance from the echo to the transducer

    2.) strength of the echo
  23. what three things does color Doppler use?
    1.) Doppler shift information

    2.) Time of flight

    3.) amplitude information
  24. What is a visible bruit?
    a flash of color within the soft tissue caused by the vibration of the vessel caused by severe flow disturbances
  25. What does OPG-GEE detect?
    significant stenosis of the end branches of the ICA.
  26. What are two limitations of OPG-GEE?
    1.) can't find exact location of stenosis or differentiate stenosis from occlusion.

    2.) Hard to find when collaterals are working
  27. What is the first thing you must do before performing an OPG-GEE?
    take brachial pressures first
  28. What are 4 contraindications?
    • 1.) allergies to local anesthetics
    • 2.) eye surgery within the last 6 months
    • 3.) a past spontaneous retinal detachment
    • 4.) acute or unstable glaucoma
  29. OPG-GEE is done by...
    measuring the ophthalmic artery systolic pressure by applying a vacuum to the eye on the sclera (white of the eye).
  30. What systolic  pressures equal what vacuum pressures?
    <140 mmHg = 300mmHg

    >140 mmHg = 500mmHg
  31. When is a problem with the artery detected when there is...
    a difference of 5mmHg between eyes
  32. What does TCPo2 stand for?
    transcutaneous oximetry
  33. What does TCPo2 do? (2)
    1.) non-invasive monitoring of the oxygen tension in the skin

    2.) direct indication of the microvascular function
  34. What is TCPo2 mainly used for? (3)
    1.) neonatal use

    2.) vascular care

    3.) wound care
  35. What are 8 uses of TCPo2?
    • 1. Diagnosis of ischemia
    • 2. Healing probability
    • 3. Suggesting amputation level
    • 4. Plastic surgery
    • 5. Hyperbaric medicine
    • 6. Orthopedic surgery
    • 7. successful revascularization
    • 8. PVD assessment
  36. How does TCPo2 work?
    • 1. Uses polarographic oxygen electrode
    • 2. Electrode heats skin to 44-45 degrees Celsius
    • 3. Oxygen is consumed by the electrode
    • 4. Electrode is calibrated with gas or with a solution of known PO2
  37. What temp should the room be when doing a TCPo2?

    What are 4 things a patient should not do before and during a TCPo2 test?
    room temp. 70-73 degrees F.

    • 1.) no caffeine 30 minutes prior to test
    • 2.) no smoking 30 min prior to test
    • 3.) no talking during test
    • 4.) no excessive movement during test
  38. When doing TCPo2 electrodes not be placed on? (5)
    • 1. ulcers
    • 2. cellulitis
    • 3. skin close to bone
    • 4. large superficial vessels
    • 5. pulse sites
  39. What is the three values of healing probability for TCPo2?
    1. 70-80 mmHg = healing

    2. 30-40 mmHg = borderline healing

    3. 10-15 mmHg = non-healing
  40. What is the Reynolds Number used for?

    What is the values of Reynolds numbers (2)?
    used to determine if flow will be laminar or turbulent

    • <2000 = no turbulence
    • >3000 = turbulence
  41. What is Raynaud's Disease...

    Also known as?

    Caused from?
    Primary

    Caused from cold or stress.
  42. What is Raynaud's Phenomenon...

    Also known as?

    Caused by?
    Secondary Raynaud's

    • Underlying conditions:
    • stenosis, systemic lupus, carpal tunnel
  43. What are the color changes that Raynaud's in fingertips?
    White to Blue to Red

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