comparative physiology quiz questions test 1

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comparative physiology quiz questions test 1
2015-03-09 15:24:53
biology comparative physiology

Comparative physiology
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  1. A change of gene frequencies over time in a population of organisms is referred to as
  2. In the summer, a sun-heated lake will tend to have the lowest concentration of dissolved oxygen  a. at the lake’s surface.
    at the bottom of the lake.
  3. The process of chance assuming a preeminent role in altering gene frequencies is called
    genetic drift.
  4. Testosterone is released by the testes in response to luteinizing hormone released from the pituitary gland. As circulating testosterone levels rise, they act on the pituitary gland to reduce the secretion of luteinizing hormone, thus reducing the production of testosterone. This is a classic example of
    negative feedback.
  5. _______ refers to the components of actual, living animals and the interactions among those components that enable the animals to perform as they do.
  6. Which of the following is the most accurate description of the mechanism of the light-emitting reaction in the firefly?
    Oxygen reacts with luciferyl-AMP to produce light.
  7. Which of the following statements regarding fish eyes and octopus eyes is most accurate?
    They are similar in gross appearance, functional performance, and adaptive significance but differ in their mechanisms.
  8. Which of the following statements regarding the discipline of physiology is false?
    Physiology is a key discipline for understanding the social context of human disease.
  9. If an animal permits internal and external conditions to be equal, it is said to show
    a. conformity.
  10. Populations of one salmon species differ genetically, and this difference increases as the physical distance between them increases. This statement refers to the study of which level of organization?
    e. Evolution
  11. A surprise phone call at 3:00 am results in an increase in heart rate. This is an example of a(n)
    a. acute change.
  12. For terrestrial animals, one of the greatest physiological challenges is
    d. preventing water loss.
  13. The increase in frequency of genes that produce phenotypes that raise the likelihood that an animal will survive and reproduce is called
    d. natural selection.
  14. Length of gestation _______ body size in mammals.
    e. scales as a regular function of
  15. Acclimatization is an example of a(n)
    b. chronic change.
  16. Which of the following cell–cell junctions allows cytoplasmic flow between the connected cells?
    Gap junction
  17. When an allosterically modulated enzyme is the rate-limiting enzyme in a metabolic pathway, the entire pathway may be upregulated or downregulated by allosteric modulation. The result of downregulation of the entire pathway is called
    b. feedback inhibition
  18. Multiple-enzyme sequences in which each enzyme in the sequence activates another enzyme is an example of
    d. amplification.
  19. Which of the following receptor proteins activate(s) enzymes on the cell membrane?
    b. G protein–coupled receptor and enzyme/enzyme-linked receptor
  20. An animal is exposed to halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, and as a result, its levels of P450 enzymes rise. This is an excellent example of the action of  a. a promotor.
    e. inducible enzymes.
  21. The allosteric site is located
    a. on the enzyme.
  22. The catalytic effectiveness of an enzyme molecule is expressed as the
    d. number of substrate molecules converted to product per second by each enzyme molecule when saturated.
  23. Which of the following is not a functional type of membrane protein?
    e. Resistance
  24. Which of the following receptor proteins interact(s) with DNA?
    d. Intracellular receptors
  25. When there are more substrate molecules than the enzyme molecules can accommodate, the reaction is
    a. saturated.
  26. Color change in fish depends on flattened pigment-containing cells called
    c. chromatophores.
  27. Molecular chaperones can be expressed during
    heat stress.  b. cold stress.  c. hypoxic stress
  28. Which of the following statements regarding brain phospholipids in fish is most accurate?
    c. The colder the habitat, the greater the degree of phospholipid unsaturation in the brain synaptic membranes.
  29. The example of killifish allele frequency distribution along the Atlantic coast describes enzyme changes over a(n) _______ time frame.
    c. evolutionary
  30. Which of the following statements regarding icefish evolution is true?
    Only icefish share an ancestor that lost the function of globin genes.
  31. The study of all of the organic compounds in cells and tissues other than macromolecules coded by the genome is called
  32. The study of which genes are being transcribed to make messenger RNA and the rates at which they are transcribed is called
    a. transcriptomics.
  33. When researchers analyzed the DNA of icefish, they found that
    he β-globin gene was completely gone and the α-globin gene was missing parts.
  34. The set of genes that encode for vertebrate globin proteins can be termed a
    gene family.
  35. The overarching goal of genomics is to elucidate the _______ of genes and genomes.
    evolution  b. current functioning
  36. An experimental manipulation in which animals lack functional copies of a gene is called
    gene knockout.
  37. A comparison of the proteins produced in an animal’s muscle tissue before and after exercise is an example of
    a screening study
  38. The process of adding human interpretation to computer-generated genetic comparisons is called
    a. annotation.
  39. Which of the following techniques is not used in a standard DNA microarray?
    Labeling of DNA by reverse transcription
  40. In one study, researchers found that after 4–8 hours after exercise the mRNAs of _______genes were found to have increased.
    d. mitochondrial enzyme
  41. Which of the following orders of analysis represents the top-down order of study?
    c. Animal function → tissue function → tissue-specific proteins → genes
  42. Genome sequencing is a technique in which
    a. the DNA sequence of the entire genome of a species is determined.
  43. SDA tends to be _______ for meals high in _______.
    e. higher; protein
  44. _______ is the most common measure of metabolic rate.
    b. Rate of O2 consumption
  45. The respiratory exchange ratio is
    b. CO2 production / O2 consumption per unit of time, measured at the gas exchange organ.
  46. Compared to small mammals, large mammals tend to
    c. lose heat less rapidly per unit of body weight.
  47. Carbohydrates can be fully oxidized by animals but proteins cannot. Consequently, some of the energy from _______ must always be _______.
    a. proteins; exported as chemical energy
  48. During vigorous exercise at high altitude, which substrate would be best for an animal to use if it needed to get the most energy production per unit of O2?
    a. Carbohydrate
  49. In homeotherms the resting metabolic rate of a fasting animal is the _______ and in poikilotherms the equivalent term is the _______.
    b. basal metabolic rate; standard metabolic rate
  50. The common currency of life is/are
    d. energy.
  51. Animals use absorbed chemical energy for
    exported chemical energy, heat, and mechanical energy of external work.
  52. Small mammals need more O2 per gram of body weight than large mammals do. Compared to large mammals, small mammals have_______ mass-specific lung size and breathe _______ times per minute.
    c. similar; more
  53. Suppose that the ratio of FADH to FADH2 is 1. The molecule is said to be in
    c. redox balance.
  54. How many ATP molecules are produced from one glucose molecule during the Krebs Cycle?
    . Two
  55. Redox balance is the
    a. removal of electrons from a compound as quickly as they are added.
  56. Which of the following molecules is generated during pyruvate oxidation?
    a. CO2
  57. The metabolic by-product excreted by fish across the gills during anaerobic glycolysis is
    b. ethanol.
  58. The enzyme needed to convert pyruvic acid to lactic acid is called
    lactate dehydrogenase.
  59. What would happen to energy production if NADH and FADH2 were not available?
    c. The Krebs cycle would stop.
  60. Which of the following is the best method for studying metabolic rate in animals in the wild?
    a. Inject them with deuterium and oxygen-18 then measure levels after the animal engages in its normal behavior for a period of time.
  61. Which of the following is the most energetically expensive way to cover distance?
    a. Running
  62. Another term for ADMR is
    d. field metabolic rate.
  63. Which of the following is most favored by natural selection?
    c. Long-distance migration, but only if the cost of covering distance is relatively low
  64. Some Antarctic molluscs die of heat stress if their body temperature rises above 2°C and some tropical molluscs die of cold stress if cooled to 4°C. This comparison illustrates
    the phenomenon of evolutionary specialization.
  65. As a poikilotherm’s body temperature increases, its metabolic rate
    d. increases exponentially.
  66. An animal that can function effectively over a wide range of temperatures and cannot elevate its tissue temperature above the environmental temperature is a
    e. eurythermal poikilotherm.
  67. During a bout of fever in a placental mammal, _______ of cutaneous vascular beds are activated when the set point of the thermoregulatory control system is above body temperature. When the set point of the thermoregulatory control system is below body temperature, _______ of cutaneous vascular beds are activated.
    d. shivering and vasoconstriction; sweating and vasodilation
  68. Which of the following is a mechanism used by mammals, but not birds, to ameliorate heat stress at temperatures above thermoneutrality?
    b. Sweating
  69. In a limb, a countercurrent flow arrangement of arteries and veins short-circuits the flow of _______ down its length.
    a. heat
  70. All animals produce heat but only some are endothermic. This is because
    a. only endotherms produce heat fast enough or retain it well enough to elevate tissue temperatures.