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what are the functions of carbohydrates?
they serve as short term energy storage, and are used as raw material to provide for cellular structure, nucleic acids.
What is the standard formula of Carbohydrates?
What functional groups make up a carbohydrate
- carbonyl (can be located at the end of within carbon skeleton)
- hydroxyl (located throughout the carbon skeleton)
why does glucose tend to from rings and in what kind of environment?
In an aqueous environment, glucose linear chains tend to form rings because it is a more stable form
how are carbohydrates classified? (3)
- 1. by the arrangement of their hydroxyl groups.
- ex) glucose and galactose differ only in the arrangement of one hydroxyl group, with glucose having its functional group along the right side of the 4th carbon
- 2. where the carbonyl is located on the carbon structure
- aldose-carbonyl located at the end
- ketose- carbonyl located within the carbon skeleton
- 3. the length/size of the carbon skeleton.
The types of carbohydrates, examples, and
- 1. simple carbohydrates: tendency to be sweet tasting and usually function as short term sources of energy
- monosaccharides: the monomers of carbohydrates, ex) glucose, galactose
- disaccharides: two monomers, ex) maltose, sucrose
- oligosaccharides: 3 -10 monosaccharides
- 2. complex carbohydrates: usually functions as energy storage or cellular material
- polysaccharides: ex) starch, cellulose, glycogen
Give an example of a ketone and describe its functions
give examples of a pentose sugars (2) and its functions
- ribose: an aldehyde, serves as the sugar base for RNA
- ribulose: a ketone, used as an intermediate for photosynthesis
give examples of some hexose sugars (3) and describe its functions
- glucose: an aldehyde, the most common simple hexose sugar used as fuel for energy.
- galactose: an aldehyde, an epimer of glucose, when it bonds with glucose, the resulting disaccharide is lactose. Another energy source
- fructose: a ketone, an energy source for most organism, when bonded with glucose it forms the disaccharide sucrose
Describe glucose, types, characteristics and the structure
- glucose is the most common monosaccharide, an aldehyde sugar. Glucose configures into two forms, depending on how the hydroxyl group is arranged spatially on Carbon 1
- In aqueous solutions, glucose can configure into a ring or a linear chain, it is a reversible formation
what bond is formed when two monosaccharides undergo a dehydration reaction?
the hydroxyl group of Carbon 1 will react with the hydrogen in the carbonyl group of Carbon 4 and release a water molecule. The resulting covalent bond is a glycosidic linkage.
compare and contrast glucose and fructose
because fructose is a ketone, both ends of the carbon structure would have hydroxyl appendages, as opposed to glucose (aldohexose) one end of the carbon structure has a carbonyl, therefore fructose would form glycosidic linkage between Carbon 2 and Carbon 5
why are there numerous types of monosaccharides and how would it influence the formation of disaccharides?
- the spatial arrangement of the functional groups lead to the diversity of monosaccharides. For example, the 3D structural difference of glucose and fructose would alter the 3D orientation of the glycosidic linkages as well
- PROVIDE PICTURE OF SUCROSE
- cellulose: a plant polysaccharide formed by b-glucoses, that run upside-down with each other
- Forms the basis for cell walls of plants. Hydrogen bonding between parallel groupings, called microfibrils, contribute to the strength of its structure.
- An insoluble fiber because animals don't produce the enzyme to break down the b-glycosidic linkages.
- They are an essential part of the human diet, because they rub against the lining of the human intestines, making it easier for stool to pass through.
- THEY ARE NEVER BRANCHED
- starch: a polysaccharide made up of a-glucoses
- located in chloroplasts, serves as the primary energy storage molecule for plants. Plants derive the energy from starch to produce ATP as it releases glucose monomers
- Starch comes in two forms, amylose (unbranched) which is helical and amylopectin (unbranched) which is also helical with multiple branches coming form 1-6 linkages
- They are soluble.
- glycogen: the primary energy storage polysaccharide for animals, and is made up of a-glucose chains.
- It has more branches than amylopectin
- Animals derive the energy stored in with glycogen via hydrolysis, to provide for the glucose needed.
- Glycogen is located in the liver and muscle cells
- Animals metabolize their glycogen storage very quickly requiring replenishment every 1 or 2 days as opposed to plants, which only need to replenish their starch storage every few weeks.
describe Chitin and where is it found?
- chitin: is a polysaccharide with a nitrogen appendage.
- they are usually found in cell walls of fungi, algae and the exoskeleton of anthropods
- Tough structure is similar to cellulose, with hydrogen bonds connecting its monomer chains.
what are glycoproteins, where is it located and what is it's function?
- proteins that are covalently bonded to short chains of sugars (oligosaccharides)
- they are used for cell-cell recognition and signaling. The sugar coat serves as a cell identifier,
what are peptidoglycans and what is it's function?
A polysaccharide with short chains of amino acids attached and serves to provide structural support within the cell walls of many bacterial species
the ring formation of glucose leads to the creation of what kind of functional group?
- OH- on the first carbon.