Bio 104 Prokaryotes Bacteria and Archaea

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Bio 104 Prokaryotes Bacteria and Archaea
2015-03-09 20:55:22
biology Prokaryotes Bacteria Archaea

Unicellular organisms.
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  1. Prokaryotes
    • -are unicellular organisms without a nucleus or organelles
    • -Includes bacteria and archaea as domains.
    • -Genetically diverse
    • -Thrive almost anywhere on earth.
    • -Spherical, Rod-shaped, and spiral
    • -lack membrane bound organelles¬†
    • -less DNA than eukaryotic in a circular chromosome
    • -might have a smaller ring of DNA known as a plasmid for exchange.
  2. Structures of Prokaryotic Organism surfaces.
    On the cell surface there is a wall, pili for attachment and/or sex, and a flagellum.
  3. Peptidoglycan
    Found in bacterial cell walls. A network of sugar polymers and polypeptides.
  4. Archaea cell walls contain
    Polysaccharides (sugars), and proteins

    NOT peptidoglycan
  5. Eukaryotic cell walls / membranes contain
    Cellulose and / or chitin
  6. What is a gram stain?
    Measures the amount of peptidoglycan in cell walls. Gram-negative have less and are more antibiotic resistant and toxic.
  7. Two types of pili
    Fimbriae which are used for attachment and sex pili
  8. Taxis
    Ability to move away or toward certain stimuli.
  9. Prokayotic reproduction happens with
    • Binary fission and divides every 1-3 hours.
    • Low mutation rate but divides rapidly
    • Might release endospores which float around and have a high survival rate.
    • Budding.
  10. How does Genetic variation happen in prokaryotes?
    Rapid reproduction leads to an eventual mutation.

    Genetic recombination (3 types)
  11. Binary Fission
    When a cell divides asexually producing two identical daughter offspring.
  12. 3 Types of genetic recombination
    • -Transformation:
    • A prokaryotic cell can take up and incorporate foreign DNA from the surrounding
    • environment

    • -Transduction
    • is the movement of genes between bacteria by bacteriophages (viruses that
    • infect bacteria)

    • -Conjugation
    • is the process where genetic material is transferred between bacterial cells
    • (might be important in Archaea)
  13. What are the 4 types of nutritional mode of prokaryotes?
    Autotrophs, phototrophs, heterotrophs, and chemotrophs
  14. Heterocytes
    Nitrogen-fixing cells that work with cyanobacteria to exchange metabolic products.
  15. biofilms
    Metabolic cooperation to coat a surface.
  16. Extremophiles
    Living in extreme areas.
  17. Halophiles
    Live in highly saline emvironments
  18. Thermophiles
    Live in very hot environments