DSCI 333 Test 1

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  1. 4 Metabolic Diseases
    • Milk Fever
    • LDA
    • Ketosis
    • SARA
  2. Milk Fever
    Low blood calcium at or near calvingImbalance between Calcium into and out of bodyCalcium needed for proper muscle functionIntracellular Calcium
  3. Milk Fever Prevention
    Acute Case: IV calcium-infuse over 30 minute periodSubacute-oral or sub cutaneous gels, pastes-Vitamin D shot-Synthetic PTH (consult vet)
  4. Displaced Abomasum (DA)
    Left displaced abomasum assumes an abnormal position on left side of rumen between rumen and body well50-80% will occur within 2 weeks post partum90% occur within post partumSounds like a basketball when flicking
  5. Preventing DA
    Feeding and management practices that prevent other post partum disorders reduce the risk of LDA.Dry Matter Intake as an LDA risk factor-lower rumen fill-Reduced F-C ratio is non-TMR herdsHigher Forage Diets will reduce chances of DA
  6. Ketosis
    Happens after DA and Milk FeverInadequate blood glucoseSymptoms-Decreased feed intake-Lethargy or nervousness-Increased ketones in blood, urine, milk, breath(like nail polish)
  7. Preventing Ketosis
    minimize body fat mobilization-watch concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) as indicator of fat mobilizationProvide rumen with propionate to make glucose
  8. SARA
    • Sub acute Ruminal Acidosis
    • Grain overloadcaused by ingestion of excessive quantities of highly fermentablecarbohydrates-> lactic acidosisGrains that contribute: most finely ground grains, brewers grains, distillers by-products
  9. Clinical signs of of SARA
    • uncoordination
    • weakness,
    • depression
    • anorexia
    • Rumen stasis
    • Abdominal pain-grunt ,
    • grind teeth
    • Dehydration w/in 24hDiarrhea
  10. Prevention of SARA
    • Avoid sudden, drastic dietary changes
    • Regular quantities of ration at regular intervals
    • Adequate roughages
    • Ionophore products including Monensin(rumensin) 
    • Lasalocid Buffers (sodium bicarbonate)
  11. Transition Period
    3 weeks before calving to 3 weeks after
  12. What does DCAD stand for?
    Dietary Cation-Anion Difference
  13. DCAD Diet
    • Cations: positively charged electrolytes (Na, K, Ca, Mg)
    • Anions: negatively charged electrolytes (Cl, S, P)
    • Feeding anions to decrease the pH in her blood so she metabolizes calcium from her bones
    • pH should be 7 or lower (6.0-6.5)
  14. Transition Cow Challenges
    • Physiological & Metabolic Stress
    • Depress feed intake, heat stress
    • Immunosuppression & infectious challenge
    • Overcrowding, sub-optical grouping and movement
    • Social dominance
    • Uncomfortable housing
    • Rough Handling
  15. Problem with over conditioned cows (fat cows)
    no appetite and doesn't eat as much melts fat off her back and gets fatty liver disease and becomes ketotic
  16. Signs of Inadequate Transition Mangement
    • High incidence of metabolic disorders
    • poor appetites
    • Acidosis
    • Rapid loss of body condition score
    • Less milk per cow
  17. Three Keys to Transition Period
    • Encourage Feed Intake
    • Minimize Stress
    • Minimize Infection Challenge
  18. allelomimetic
    Cattle are allelomimetic, meaning they like to perform the same activity every day at the same time
  19. Feeding close up cows
    • goal is to minimize drop in DMI
    • DMI of >30 lbs/day for multiparous cows and 24 lbs/day for heifers
    • Adequate water intake
  20. Cow attitude and appearance
    • Cows are up and eating
    • 1. Down, reluctant to rise
    • 2. Depressed, sunken eyes, droopy ears, slow movements
    • 3. Slightly depressed, doesn't look right "hang over"
    • 4. Bright and Alert
  21. Manure Scores
    • 3 is ideal
    • 1. Fluid/liquid/pipe stream diarrehea
    • 2. Loose, does not stack
    • 3. Formed piles, stack
    • 4. Firm tight dry feces
    • 5. Firm balls, stacks 2-4" high
  22. 7 areas to assess cow comfort
    • 1. Ventilation
    • 2. Free stalls
    • 3. Bedding
    • 4. Flooring
    • 5. Milking parlor and holding pen
    • 6. Manager and waterers
    • 7. Overall comfort signs
  23. Water space per cow
    • Return alley water trough: 2 linear feet per cow
    • In housing area: 3 inches per cow
  24. Milk quality is most affected by
    • Sanitation
    • Milk Cooling
    • Nutrition
    • Animal Health (Mastitis)
  25. Milk Quality Test
    Standard Plate Count
    • Official regulatory test and reference for bacterial populations in raw milk
    • California standard is <50,000 CFU/ml
    • usually caused by errors in cooling milk and cleaning milking equipment
  26. Milk Quality Test
    Coliform Count
    • Indicates fecal contamination
    • considered an indicator of cow preparation procedures during milking and the cleanliness of the cow's environment
    • Ca standard is <750 CFU
  27. Milk Quality Test
    Lab Pasteurized Count
    • Measures Thermoduric Organisms
    • Routinely performed as a diagnostic aid in milk quality assessment. Particularly helpful when SPC is high as this test helps to identify thermoduricorganisms
    • thermoduricorganisms can survive pasteurization and are associated with pasteurized milk spoilage
    • Ca standard <750 CFU/ml
  28. Preliminary Incubation Count
    • Used as a measure of raw milk keeping quality as well as general sanitation 
    • Measures psychrotophic bacteria
  29. Somatic Cell Count
    • Measures white blood cell (leukocyte) response of cow, presumably to a microbiological challenge
    • Ca standard <600,000 cells/ml
  30. 5 critical areas to consider regarding cow comfort
    • 1. Adequacy of stall surface cushion
    • 2. A defined resting area of appropriate size related to the type of animal
    • 3. Adequate room for lunging and an unobstructed "bob zone"
    • 4. Adequate height below and behind the neck-rail to rise without hindrance
    • 5. A curb height no higher than eight inches
  31. Perching
    Not fully going into the stall and laying down
  32. Locomotion score and milk loss
    • 1=0% loss
    • 2=0% loss
    • 3=5% loss
    • 4=17% loss
    • 5=36% loss
  33. Where should sprinklers hit the cow
    • should come front the top so water doesn't hit the udder 
    • blow fan into face
  34. Factors that influence cow comfort
    • Grouping strategies
    • Time budgets
    • Heat Stress
    • Flooring surfaces
    • Feeding strategies
    • Feedline surfaces
    • Freestall design and bedding
    • Walking distance 
    • Stocking Density
    • Cold Stress
    • Travel lanes
  35. When calving do and don't
    • Don't move cow until in full labor (water bag showing) moving cow releases adrenaline and shuts process down
    • water will help prevent DA provide warm water after calving
  36. Fetotomy
    When calf is dead and won't come out, has to come out in pieces
  37. Why do fat cows have trouble calving?
    They have a lot of fatty tissue in reproduction tract and they are short on energy from not eating properly
  38. Maternal Causes of dystocia
    • The birth canal is too small
    • The mother is too fat
    • Torsion (twisted) of the uterine inertia (failure to contract)
  39. Fetal Causes of Dystocia
    • The fetus is too large
    • Abnormal presentation, posture, position of fetus at birth positions
    • Twins with simultaneous presentation
  40. Calving Disorders
    • Dystocia (difficult birth)
    • Paralysis (happens to mom)
    • Prolapses
    • Fresh Cow Presentation
    • -retained placenta
    • -Metritis (uterine infection)
    • -Metabolic disorders
  41. After calf is born
    • stimulation of respiration (flip calf on both sides so lungs can inflate)
    • Dip navel in 7% iodine twice to make sure mom didn't lick it off (MOST IMPORTANT)
    • Vaccination
    • Colostrum
  42. 5 C's of Raising Calves
    • Colostrum
    • Calories
    • Comfort
    • Cleanliness
    • Consistency
  43. 4 hour rule
    • Milk cows four hours after calving
    • feed calves colostrum before 4 hours old
  44. Calf immune system
    • calves are not born with an immune system and only get it through IgG's in the colostrum
    • Intestinal tract is designed to temporally allow the absorption of large molecules, including immunoglobulins the first 12 to 24 hours of life
  45. What does colostrum provide
    • Not only passive immunity for the neonatal intestine but also growth promoting substances such as-
    • peptide hormones
    • growth factors
    • cytokines
    • steroid hormones
    • thyroxine
    • nucleotides
    • polyamines & enzymes
  46. How much colostrum do you feed
    • feed 10% of body weight
    • (holstein calf weighs approx. 100 lbs)
    • 1 gallon for 100 lb calf

    Consume at least 100g of IgG ASAP after birth
  47. Day 1 in calf health
    • Respiratory disease vaccine (nasal vaccine)
    • Scour guard
    • Colostrum 
    • Navel dip again
  48. Bovishield gold 5 vaccine
    • 4 weeks old
    • Booster 2-3 weeks later
    • get immune response b/c live vaccine (antibodies)
    • only 75% will respond so give a booster
  49. Septicemia
    • when pathogen gets in blood stream and can hit major organs
    • navel is pipeline to bloodstream
  50. Passive transfer of immunity
    IgG contributes large contributions to total protein in serum & measurement of serum protein provides reasonably accurate indication of the degree of Ig present
  51. Factors affecting passive transfer of immunity
    • 1. calf able to absorb colostral Ig, which is largely function of time after birth
    • 2. That the calf consumes a sufficient quantity of Ig in colostrum & the quantity of colostrum fed
  52. Ability of calf to absorb Ig
    • Gut permeable to large proteins such as Ig for only first 24 hours
    • Delayed feeding results in decreased absorption of Ig
  53. Stomach of a calf
    • Abomasum is largest stomach in calf
    • Rumen is small and not ready to digest milk; bypasses rumen through esophageal groove
    • Dont tube feed calf milk, only electrolytes because milk can get into the rumen
  54. 2 places infection can enter the calves body
    • The mouth
    • The navel
  55. Feeding milk (warm or cold?)
    • 102-105 degrees
    • calf has to warm the milk to body temperature of 102 degrees before digestion can occur. Shivering calves are using energy to warm the milk up and wasting energy
  56. Feeding calves grain
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DSCI 333 Test 1
2015-03-10 02:32:48
DSCI 333

Dairy Science 333 Test 1
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