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a mutualistic symbiosis occurs between ruminant animals and ___
the process of producing silage
preservation of livestock feed by adding microorganisms.
Microorganisms feed on (____) starches and simple sugar in the livestock feed producing _____
ferment, lactic acid
A build-up of ____ causes a very acidic environment to develop and prevents further microbial growth and prevents further breakdown of livestock feed
purpose of composting and Ensiling
- Composting: breakdown of organic matter
- Ensiling: preservation of livestock feed
microorganisms used in composting and Ensiling
- Composting: aerobic, thermophilic microbes used
- Ensiling: anaerobic, thermophilic microbes used
what does Fermentation result in for composting and Ensiling
- Composting: Fermentation increases temp in the middle of the compost.
- Ensiling: Fermentation increases the temp in the middle of the silage producing lactic acid
Products of the process of composting and Ensiling
- Composting: fermentation products are organic nutrients
- Ensiling: fermentation products help slow/stop further degradation.
what causes Crown Gall Disease
Agrobacterium tumefaciens, because it contains tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid
How do we use Agrobacterium tumerficiens to genetically engineer plants
using RE to cut Ti, ligase to add GOI, which allows GOI to develop in plants
6 examples of EG agricultural products
- 1) Herbicide-resistant crops
- 2) salt-tolerant tomatoes
- 3) Insecticide-producing crops
- 4) FlavrSavr tomatoes
- 5) Golden Rice
- 6) Veggie Vaccines
What company and what products are at the center of genetic modification of plants debate?
Monsanto: produces soybeans, alfalfa, corn, cotton, and sugar beats.
How is Bacillus thuringiensis involved with GM crop plants?
Insecticide-producing crops use Crystal GOI from B. thuringiensis to produce plants that kill insects.
What nutrient was added to rice which is normally not present in rice, and how could the addition be beneficial
Beta-carotene is a precorsor to vitamin A, which is important for vision and development
3 things fermentation produces
- 1) alcohol
- 2) acids
- 3) carbon dioxide
3 things fermentation is used to do
- 1) production/preservation
- 2) flavor
- 3) nutrition
Beer/wine requires the microorganism ___ to ___
fungi to ferment
Leavened bread requires ___ for fermentation
pickled food requires _____ for fermetnation
lactic acid bacteria
Dairy products requires the microorganism ___ for fermentation
lactic acid bacteria
3 food born disease barriers? AKA what do they have to do to cause disease?
- 1) getting inside your body
- 2) getting past your stomach
- 3) stay inside your body
Food born infection requires
microorganism needs to survive in food, survive through the stomach and remain inside the intestines to establish an infection.
4 characteristics of E. coli O157:H7
- 1) facultative anaerobe
- 2) acid-reisistant
- 3) mesophile
- 4) toxin-producing
How do the characteristics of E. coli O157:H7 contribute to its ability to cause disease?
It can survive many environments.
Food born illness AKA food born intoxication with botulism toxin is caused by
5 characteristics of Clostridium botulinum
- 1) aerobic
- 2) non-acidophilic
- 3) mesophilic
- 4) endospore forming
- 5) toxin producing
Cause of intoxication and infection
- Intoxication: consumption of a toxin
- Infection: consumption of living organims
time to disease for intoxication and infection
- Intoxication: 2-6 hours
- Infection: slow, due to incubation period (days to weeks).
treatment for intoxication and infection
- Intoxication: anti-toxins: only for life-threatening toxins
- Infection: antibiotics: usually effective
What does CSCC stand for
Clean, Separate, Cook, Chill for food handling.