Chapter 2: Infectious Diseases

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Author:
dmshaw9
ID:
298026
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Chapter 2: Infectious Diseases
Updated:
2015-03-10 00:12:05
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Infectious Diseases
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NPTE,Chapter2
Description:
NPTE: Chapter 2
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  1. Meningitis: Definition
    Inflammation of the membranes of the SC or brain
  2. Meningitis: Etiology
    • Can be bacterial or viral
    • Pts with bacterial are usually sicker with more rapid time course
  3. Meningitis: Treatment
    • Treat infective organism (bacterial meningitis) with antibacterial therapy (antibiotic, antipyretic)
    • Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
    • Provide supportive symptomatic therapy (bed positioning, PROM, skin care, safety measures if confusion is present)
  4. Encephalitis: Definition
    Severe infection and inflammation of the brain
  5. Encephalitis: Etiology
    • Arboviruses, or asequela in influenza (Reye's syndrome, eastern equine encephalitis, measles), 
    • Chronic and recurrent sinusitis, otitis, or other infections
    • Bacterial encephalitis, prion-caused disease (kuru, "mad cow" disease)
  6. Encephalitis: Treatment
    • Treat infective organism (bacterial encephalitis)
    • Provide supportive symptomatic therapy
  7. Brain Abscess: Definition
    • Infectious process in which there is a collection of pyogenic material in the brain parenchyma
    • Can be extension of infection (i.e. meningitis, otitis media, sinusitis, post TBI)
    • Typically frontal or temporal lobes or cerebellum
  8. Brain Abscess: Signs and Symptoms
    • Headaches
    • Fever
    • Brainstem compression
    • Focal signs CN II and VI
  9. Brain Abscess: Treatment
    • Treat infective organism
    • Surgical intervention
    • Provide supportive symptomatic therapy
  10. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDs): Definition
    Viral syndrome characterized by acquired and severe depression of cell-mediated immunity
  11. AIDs: Symptoms
    • Wide ranging, 1/3 of patients exhibit CNS/PNS deficits
    • AIDs dementia complex (ADC): symptoms range from confuse and memory loss to disorientation
    • Motor deficits: ataxia, weakness, tremor, loss of fine motor coordination
    • Peripheral neuropathy: hypersensitivity, pain, sensory loss
  12. AIDs: Treatment
    • Treat with anti-HIV drugs
    • Provide palliative and supportive therapy

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