PTA EXAM - Neuromuscular
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Left Hemisphere Injury
- Right-sided sensory and motor deficits
- Difficulty understanding and producing language, both written and spoken
- Difficulty sequencing movements
- Poor logical and rational thought
- Slow, captious, anxious
- Self-deprecating (To express disapproval of; deplore.)
Right Hemisphere Injury
- Left-sided sensory and motor deficits
- Unable to understand nonverbal communication
- Difficulty sustaining movements
- Poor hand-eye coordination and kinesthetic awareness
- Quick and impulsive
- Overestimation of abilities
Lobes of Cerebrum - Frontal
- Primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus): responsible for voluntary movements on contralateral side of the body
- Broca's area: motor components of speech
- Cognition, judgment, attention, abstract thinking and emotional control
Lobes of Cerebrum - Parietal
- Primary sensory cortex (postcentral gyrus): integrates sensation from contralateral side of body
- Short-term memory
- Perception of touch, proprioception, pain and temperature sensations
Lobes of Cerebrum - Temporal
- Primary auditory cortex: receives auditory information
- Associative auditory cortex: processing of auditory information
- Wernicke's area: comprehension of spoken word
- Long-term memory
- Visual perception
- Primary visual cortex: receives visual information
Lobes of Cerebrum - Occipital
Visual association cortex: processes visual information and applies meaning
Medulla oblongata: contains centers of vital sign functioning of the cardiac, respiratory and vasomotor centers. It is responsible for the maintenance of consciousness and arousal.
Hypothalamus: critical for maintaining homeostasis. Controls primitive drives including those related to rage, aggression, emotion, thirst and hunger, as well as the sleep/wake cycle. Damage can also cause problems with temperature, water and behavioral regulation.
Basal ganglia: regulates posture and muscle tone.
Cerebellum: regulates maintenance of posture and voluntary movement control.
Brainstem: contains cranial nerve nuclei, damage can lead to a variety of cranial nerve dysfunctions.
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