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the lungs sit on a broad flat muscle called the ______.
the apex of the lungs is _____.
above the clavicles
what structures pass through the hilum?
- main stem bronchi
- pulmonary artery
- pulmonary veins
a child inhales a peanut. where is it most likely to go?
right lower lobe
the bronchi brand repeatedly to form a smaller and smaller air tubes, all supported by rings of cartilage except the last branching. what are these called and why are they important?
bronchioles, not having the cartilage, are able to change their diameter, regulating the amount of air flow
- microscopic sacs whose wall is one flattened cell think
- inner surface has a thin coat of water
- two other cells found in the aveolus: great alveolar cells which produce surfactant and alveolar macro phages that keep the sac clean
- each alveolus is surround by a web of capillaries from the pulmonary artery
what is the function of surfactant?
reduces surface tension in the water in the alveolus
what is the respiratory membrane?
the one cell thickness of the alveolus cemented to the one cell thick capillary; this is the place where gases are exchanged between air and blood
in order to make air move, what is required?
a difference in pressure (higher to lower pressure)
in order for air to move in the lungs, what must happen?
the pressure in the chest must decrease
in order for the pressure in the chest to decrease, what must happen?
the chest volume must increase
what changes in shape occur to the diaphragm in inhalation?
- when the diaphragm is relaxed it forms a dome that pushes up into the chest
- when it contracts, it flattens, making ht top to bottom size of the chest bigger