Know what campesinos (peasants) are, and some of the debates about what their roles should be with the agrarian economy
- campesinos are peasants who live in subsistence based rural communities which have marginal contact with a larger society. Usually peasants choose to stand against capitalism because they have communal land and are engaged in subsistence agriculture. semi-autonomous, semi-dependent
- self-sufficient small-scale farmers or fishers, who sell some surplus products on the market (or to pay taxes or other dues to the state or landowners).
indigenous or mestizo, usually considered poor, produce or help to produce some food for the internal market (different from large scale agricultural workers, but still produce food for others to purchase), urban population depends on peasantry but peasantry does not really depend on the urban population and can challenge capitalist models of export-led growth and industrialization, and rather engage in subsistence agriculture (not selling their labor)
The agrarian question: Will peasants act as allies in the struggle to achieve socialism? achieve class consciousness? will they ally with the industrial proletariat (as members of the working class)?
The agrarian problem: How to best distribute land and become most productive?, how to make food for everyone, and still export agricultural products on the world market?Agrarian structure: Set of institutions, norms, social, political and economic relationships governing the access to and use of land as productive resource. E.G. Land to whomever farms is; no land can be left idle for extended periods of time etc...