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what is the bourbon reform (changes/improve)
- set of economic and political legislation introduced by Spanish Crown under various kings of the House of Bourbon throughout 18th century.
- different strategy intended to stimulate manufacturing and technology in order to modernize Spain and prevent corruption of peninsolares and criollos leaders.
Understand some of the general economic and political changes during late colonialism (with Bourbon reforms)
Spain in economic decline. Increased freedom of trade within the Spanish empire. no longer restrictions on what could be exported, but spain just increased taxes on these goods.
Criollos and mestizos were most upset bc they had most to lose
- b) political reforms: was an attempt to centralize colonial administration to eliminate abuse of power like with the peninsulores and creoles and to increase royal revenue
c) local responses:
- anti-tax demonstrations: from rebellious criollos, indiginous and mestizos as well
- Túpac Amaru Revolt in Peru: Tupac Amaru, native who claimed inca linkage, formed a revolt he was captured and killed and yet the revolt still went on. uprising of native and mestizo peasants against the Bourbon reforms and increased taxation
- Comunero Revolt in New Granada: against force labor and increase in taxation. at first spanish gave in to the appeals, but then turned around and arrested and executed all the leaders. It was a way of declaring dont mess with the reforms
Know the major reason for independence in the region as a whole
Napoleon Invaded berian peninsula with french forces and made his brother Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain
people didnt like this and LA essentially fell apart. creoles were not being respected and decided that they were no longer wanted to be a part of the Spanish empire because they did not support the french “king” in Spain.
No free trade, colonies were only allowed to trad with spain and they didnt like that so spain was forced to loosen restrictions, but it was too late because by then colonies were alreayd trading with US and Britain who demanded fair pricing
spain became weak
Ideas from the enlightenment came with new ideas about how to improve their situation.
They looked to the US model in order to control their own markets, free trade, and for representation. Elites in Latin America wanted to expand their region in a more developed way, but not all regions wanted the free trade idea
overthrow of colonial rule....LA wanted more liberal model of development
British loaned Latin Americans so that they could become free, but this lead them to be in debt already before they were free.
Know which areas of Latin America were fighting (civil) wars for independence and understand the economic cost of these wars
- Mexico, Gran Colombia, and southern cone
- wanted free trade model, but were surrounded with places that didnt want that.
Economic costs were high – expenses incurred in waging defense against insurrections therefore reducing production processes
central america, cuba, puerto rico, and peru were loyal to spanish crown
Know the difference between a corporatist and a liberal model (both economically and politically)
- corporatist model:
- monopolistic; opposed free trade
- not all people were treated alike
- different social groups had different rights and responsibilities before the Crown.
- Not all individuals pursuing separate interests (ex. always part of a larger corporate group - merchants, artisans)
- Liberal Model:
- contrasts with corporatism
- Economic liberalism involves laissez-faire economic policies (i.e. free trade, eliminating monopolies).
- Political liberalism has equality of citizens before the state, and policies aimed at the dissolution of corporate groups. individual freedom, freedom of speech etc.
Understand what Liberalism following independence implied for indigenous populations -
☀with liberalism now everyone is created equal
☀after independence we get the Abolition of Corporate Groups
☀Catholic Church no longer has monopoly, but same level of authority
☀No more tribute of Indians… which also meant no more special treatment with their property which also means their land could be taken away
☀They were now equal to Criollos elites
☀Indígenas needed to conform to Hispanic society – Spanish patterns of political and economic organization.
☀Indígenas needed to become just like all other citizens.
☀Lead to a series of rebellions among indigenous populations (which puzzled Liberal reformers)
Understand the implications of moving from mercantalism to free trade
By 1800, Latin America was the richest part of what would become the “Third World.”
Leaders were convinced that the region would be prosperous once the monopolies of Spain and Portugal were eliminated
- urge to raise capital in international market, but great britain could not invest bc they already invested in railways in US and Europe
- Still some state control with Free
- Trade. Goods were taxed; the debate was over how much to tax things.
- Foreign merchants (importers and
- exporters) wanted restrictions and taxes to be as low as possible.
- Domestic producers & merchants;
- landowners and farmers selling products on the internal market could not compete with imports without high tariffs.
- ** By midcentury the model was export-led growth through commodity exports and
- capital imports is necessary to develop the nations
Know how Central America was different from other regions in regards to its independence
it has to do with the debate of liberalism and corporate model that played out by a region that was mainly loyalist
Mexico fought and got its independence and wanted to liberate CA from spain and incldue them in the mexican empire
for guatemala the issue was not about acheiving independece from spanish crown but how not to become a part of mexico.
- The central government, formerly in Guatemala, was then divided its nation into three comandancias of administrative power in order to not become annexed to mexico:
- Ciudad Real
- Guatemala city
Mexico invaded El Salvador and absolute independence was declared. Chiapas elected to remain a part of Mexico, while other five states formed the United Provinces of Central America.
Be familiar with some of the reasons why Central America did not remain united as one country
☀The economic crisis experienced under the conservatives created an increase in support of liberalism. Hayday of liberalism in most of LA: 1870s-1930s. This was also the period of U.S economic expansion.
- ☀why its not united is a historical question between conservative and liberalist: carrera Vs. Morazon
- ☀Liberal honduran general, morazon, wanted to unite the region
- ☀the idea that the region would be stronger united, but conservatives didnt want it
- middle sector ladino (mestizo) wanted free trade
- ☀a lot of well intentioned reforms
- ☀Morazon defeated by conservatives who wanted a monopoly
- ☀rupture of united provinces - countries went into economic crisis that was worse than when CA separated from Spain
- ☀The government struggled with immense financial difficulties in the process of initial state formation.
- ☀no clear sense of nationhood.