Latin America midterm Week 2
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spanish and portugese expansion before coming to NW/LA
- SPANISH & PORTUGESE: idea of catholic unity, build extensive networks, europeans brought livestock & diseases
- MESOAMERICA: already has things happening before european arrival (civil war), diverse extensive networks
What are Different types of pre columbian societies in the New World?
How has this affected the colonization patterns?
- General Characteristics:
- - Foragers (mobile, hunter gather, egalitarian, bands, no legal structure, leadership on influence)
- - horticulturalists (semi-sedentary, moved based on season, food cultivation, simple tools)
- - Intensive agriculturalists living in states (sedentary, city structures, domesticated livestock, formalized social structure based on authority, ability to conquer and expand)
- ☀Inca’s, Mayan’s and Aztec’s targeted because easier to control
- ☀Structures such as tribute and divisions of labor were in place.
- ☀During civil war in this area already people bumping heads
- ☀Europeans more interested in colonizing sedentary societies bc already structure in place
- ☀they needed large labor force to extract raw materials to increase their wealth
some major reasons for which the Spaniards were able to conquer
- ☀for some empires it was beneficial to form an alliance with spaniards during rivalry with incas(the enemy of my enemy is my friend)
- ☀conquistadors “befriended” the enemies of these empires
- ☀europeans brought larger weapons and brought diseases that killed natives
- ☀“white god” explanation needs to be divulged its not the best representation of how spanish conquest
encomienda (commission or charge)
- encomienda already in place with incas to pay tribute
- Spanish Crown conferred right to demand tribute and forced labor from Indian inhabitants
curse of the wealth
south america had an abundance of mineral wealth such as gold and silver that europeans came to extract.
What is imperialism
- policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
- practice of foreign conquest and rule in context of global relations of hierarchy and subordination (can be a cultural, economic, political, or a combination)
what is colonialism
- practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically
- political rule of specific territory by rulers from a foreign territory through establishment of a colony. Political rule can be through direct or indirect forms of authority.
relationship between the Spanish and Portuguese crowns
- ☀initial conquest with colombus
- ☀columbus went back to europe and reported his findings claiming he found the east indies
- ☀spain and portugal then agreed to divide LA region
- ☀Spain controlled central region of LA
- ☀Portugal southern atlantic
- ☀1521 - cortez invades mexico and cuzco
- ☀Pizarro - arrived in cuzco and a lot people already dying
- ☀gold was found which first drove the economy and then died down, then silver drove the economy
the Catholic Church and process of colonialism (the requiremento and encomienda)
- ☀colonialism and the church: In europe there was the war with catholics and muslims. ☀Catholics won and now seeking to expand.
- ☀Interested in converting people to Catholicism
- ☀In new world Indians didnt know anything about catholicism
- ☀Extreme cruelty happening to indians by spaniards
- ☀Bartolome De Las Cases oppossed this and so he befriended the indians and spoke
- to them about catholicism and more just ways of trading
- ☀Spain got blessing from the pope to convert indians and impose the requiremento
- ☀requiremento was a booklet carried around by conquistadors that was to be read to
- indians before battles to give them a chance to swear allegiance to the Spanish crown and convert to Christianity.
- ☀ if they refused allegience then it justifies violence and a "Just war" believing god is on their side
- ☀it gave spaniards and Portuguese a chance to take over whatever land they sought out and that they would want.
- ☀pope gave Iberians rights to the land and responsibility to convert the natives.
- ☀dominant institution through which the first work of the colony was done by having natives work the land.
- ☀formal grant of land were given to Spanish conquistadors that included any natives, communities, or cities.
- ☀natives were to pay tribute in the form of minerals, agriculture or crop and/or work in mines or plantations for certain amount of times
- ☀In return, the owner, or encomendero, was
- responsible for the well-being, conversion, and education of the natives.
- ☀this system was a way to reward conquistadors and establish a sort of governance
???????Understand the general interests in the New World of Spain and Portugal as compared to French and British -
- spain = sugar
- Portugal interested in Sugar and slave trade
- other materials came later minerals, indigo, cochineal etc
Have a general understanding of mercantilism
- the crown determines what they need from other countries at prices they establish
- colonies DO NOT trade with each other they were expected to export it to another country.
what kinds of minerals and natural resources the colonizers sought, and which parts of Latin America they were found
- Gold in colombia
- Silver in Argentina and bolivia in potosi, indigo and cochineal dye.
Only _______ became a significant gold producer. It was _____ production that finally became the mainstay of Spanish wealth.
Know what political economy of both an Hacienda and a plantation
- ☀agricultural estate
- ☀operated by dominant owner with dependent labour force
- ☀organized to supply a small-scale market (internal market) by means of scarce capital
- ☀factors of production employed for capital accumulation and to support the status aspirations of the owner.
- ☀loyalty and trust based - Spaniards that were loyal to the crown could get an hacienda
- ☀the creols could marry a spanish-born and improve their status, BUT NO HACIENDA GIVEN TO MESTIZOS DOWN!!
- ☀agricultural estate
- ☀operated by dominant owners (usually organized into a corporation) with dependent labour force
- ☀organized to supply large-scale (export) market by means of abundant capital
- ☀factors of production are employed to further capital accumulation, not for status needs of the owners. 70 percent of labor was through African slaves
- AN INTEREST OF HACIENDA AND PLANTATION OWNERS TO TRADE CLOSER AMONGST THEMSELVES
whats the council of the Indies
- supreme governing body of Spain’s colonies in America
- composed of 6- 10 councillors appointed by the king.
- approved all important acts and expenditures by colonial officials
- acted as a court of last resort in civil suits
- prepared and issued all legislation governing the colonies in the king’s name
Whats a viceroy
- someone the king could trust
- the one that ruled a country or a province
- representative of his sovereign king and who was empowered to act in kings name.
- title given to principal governors of Spain’s American colonies, as well as to the governors of the “kingdoms” of peninsular Spain proper.
EX: Viceroy Antonio Mendoza - recieved decree from king to place orders upon indians and to scope out where the labor was, but not to wrong or harm them in such way. More about imposing new taxation policies, tributes, and raid graves and temples to collect goods.
what was the stratification between different kinds of people in colonial society?
- ☀King- Supreme ruler
- ☀Council of the indies (consejo de Indias) - loyal people in spain on kings council in charge of governance
- ☀Viceroy (virrey) -
- someone the King trusted a lot, Spanish-born! Virrey appointed executive government, judiciary, military, hacienda (treasury), church → Local government
spanish born in spain - most trusted
pure blood spaniards born in new world (could buy their way into aristocracy)
mixed blood, one spanish father and indigenous women (too few spanish women in the New World so interbreeding in common)
mix between indigenous people and African slaves
: lowest on heirarchy
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