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What is a/the ‘state’
- ☀Not the same as a government
- ☀Multifaceted, not monolithic
- ☀specific political entity with a border that does not change
- ☀apparatus of government associated with a “sovereign” territory.
- ☀Comprised of the executive, its bureaucracy and related institutions.
- ☀Involved in taxation, allocation of rights, punishment, social services
- ☀active on different levels
- ☀encompasses institutions and individuals which can have contradictory visions and goals.
- (Eg. The military and the police vs. the
- education and welfare system)
What is a government
- Not the same as a state
- governments can change
- different governments can come and go, but the state does not change
Know about how the military has played a role in governing projects
politically (military governments etc), but also for delivering basic services in the name of the state (construction of a hospital, roads etc)
Be familiar with the general history of the military build-up of Central America during the 1980s; understand the role of local elites and US foreign policy of preventing the spread of Cuban- and Soviet- influenced ideologies
- many of the most devastating effects of the cold war have been felt in Latin America
- the US concerned about the spread of soviet and cuban influenced ideologies in “its own backyard”
- sought capitalist allies in the process of “preventing communism” by persecuting ‘subversives’
Understand major effects of the fear of communism in Latin America and how this has been internalized by different people
Fear of communism was a result of the effects of the cold war. Poor people were being persecuted because of having socialist ties even if they have never been outside of their own city.
Understand what type of people are generally recruited into the armed forces in Latin America and be familiar with the Bolivia examples in the Gill article
- Mandatory to get a full citizenship, ideologies of masculinity, Rich people bought their way out
- citizenship is associated with military service and masculinity
- peasants and poor people usually recruited
Be familiar with the general characteristics of guerilla warfare
FFAA - Armed forces (military) → working for the state.
The para-military is not the official military but they support the state, the state does not admit that para-militaries are happening, but they are supported by the military. para-military are volunteers from the military that currently are part of the milirary or has been fired from the military.
Guerillas goal is to topple the government, they don’t have all the “toys” that the military has so they have to hide as civilians. Hit-and-run tactics, peasants and regular citiszens.
In Nicaragua during the “red scare” the Americans trained liberalists in Honduras and formed guerillas in Nicaragua (the Contras), that would take the government back from the socialists.
Understand the term gender and how the armed forces experience forges notions of masculinity
Military service is comprised of mostly peasant men who have forged their service wupon the idea of masculinity. Citizenship was equitable with service
Be familiar with the term class, and what citizenship is associated with in anthropology
class: a group of people thought of as a unit because they are similar in terms of social and/or economic factors. In America, for instance, a class distinction is commonly made between "white collar" well paid office workers and lower paid "blue collar" factory workers and manual laborers. In state level societies of the past, the most important class distinction was between the ruling elite and the commoners. Bands, tribes, and early chiefdoms did not have classes, though individuals were often ranked relative to each other.
citizenship:concerned with political legal status as a member of a national region with certain rights and responsibilites. holds a lot of political agency