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What are the 3 main functions of the nervous system?
- 1. sensory
- 2. integration
- 3. Motor
What is the function, integration, in regards to the nervous system?
It takes the stimuli information and processes it to determine a proper response
What is somatic? is it in the PNS or CNS? voluntary or involuntary?
PNS: it includes the skeletal muscles (voluntary)
T or F: Parasympathetic is the "rest and digest"
CNS or PNS? Oligodendrocytes are in this.
CNS or PNS? Scwhann cells are in this
What are the function of astrocytes? Are they in the PNS or CNS?
- CNS: they help maintain environment
- creates the BBB: regulates what molecules go into the brain from the bloodstream
CNS or PNS? Epindymal cells: function?
CNS: lines hollow spaces of brain and spinal cord
CNS or PNS? Microglia: function?
CNS: phagocytes of CNS
Where does the pons and medulla come from during fetal development?
What are the 3 meninges?
- 1. PIA mater
- 2. arachnoid layer
- 3. Duramater
What is the fx of the prefrontal area?
decision making, executive functioning, impulse control?
What is the function of the precentral gyrus?
primary motor cortex: plans out the muscles that require any movement.
What is plasticity?
potential of the brain to rewire and adjust to things
Which side do 90% of ppl have language on the brain? Left or right?
What is the fx of the broca's area?
language producton area
What is the fx of the Wernicke's area?
For understanding language
What connects the left and right hemisphere?
What is epilepsy?
an "electrical storm" when parts of the brain receives electrical activity that shouldn't happen.
What is kindling?
When seizures make areas of the brain more prone to further seizures
Motor or Efferent division function?
carries info FROM the CNS to effector organs
what are effector gorgans?
These organs are muscles or glands that carry out the orders in the efferent division
Fx of the sensory/afferent division?
Carries infomation to the CNS from external and internal stimulus
What is the fx of the corpus callosum?
a commisure that connects the left and right hemisphere for communication
What is the fx of the amygdala?
What are the 3 main parts of the diencephalon?
- 1. epithalamus
- 2. thalamus
- 3. hypothalams
What hormone does the pineal gland secrete? what is it attached to in the diencehalon?
Which part of the diencephalon has choroid plexuses?
Which diencephalon part is considered the "Gateway to the cerebrum" and the relay station for sensory info?
What are the 3 main functions of the hypothalamus?
- 1. autonomic control: resp, HR, BP, temp
- - Drives: thirst, hunger, sex
- 2. emotion: pleasure, rage, anger
- 3. Endocrine mediator
What is the pituitary gland attached to?
What part of the diencephalon controls the endocrine system and is the endocrine mediator?
Where is the midbrain located?
Below the thalamus
Where is the superior colliculi located and its function?
In midbrain: visual reflexes (saccades)
What is saccade?
Looking from point to point
Where is the inferior colliculi located and its function?
Midbrain: auditory reflexes
Where is the substantia nigra located and its function?
Midbrain: has neurons that release dopamine at the base nuclei
Which part of the midbrain does parkinson's effect
Substantia nigra: here neuron cells die
What is the function of the Pons?
It has respiratory centers
What functions does the medulla control?
Core central for breathing, BP, emesis, coughing and sneezing.
Breaks in the BBB happen in these 2 parts of the brain to get a ead of what's going on in the blood
Hypothalamus and medulla
Which parts of the brain are involved in emotions of the limbic system?
- anterior cingulate cortex (acc)
This part of the brain is integral in memory formation
This part of the limbic system governs arousal. Without this = non-arousable sleep (coma)
Reticular activating system (RAS)
T or F: the cerebellum is connected to motor areas and motor receptors
What does the EEG measure? what areas does it measure?
- wave forms that corresponds to the state of awareness
- It does not measure pinpoint signals in the brain, but general areas
What are the 4 types EEG waves? what do they each represent?
- 1. Alpha waves: 7-13Hz awake and relaxed
- 2. Beta waves: >13hz from relaed to paying attention suddenly
- 3. Theta waves: found when sleep 3-7.5haz
- 4. Delta waves: Deep sleep
- **when an awake adult is found in 3 & 4, something is wrong**
What part of the brain is the last to get myelinated? at what age does it get myelinated?
Front: impulse control. Process is not done until age 18
Which wave of the EEG characterize non-REM sleep?
T or F: night terrors and sleep walking occurs during REM sleep
False: during non-REM sleep
What do the "sleep spindles" in non-REM sleep mean? How long until REM occurs from nonREM?
Starting non-REM sleep. REM sleep occurs 30-60 mins after sleeping starts
T or F: REM sleep can start up multiple times during the night
What are the characteristics of REM sleep? (6 parts)
- 1. EEG looks awake (beta waves)
- 2. Increased temp, HR
- 3. "paradoxical sleep"
- 4. skeletal muscles are paralyzed
- 5. where most dreams ocur
- 6. spontaneous erections
What is the pattern of memory?
Short term -> consolidation -> Long-term memory
What is consolidation in memory? what part of the brain is critical in it?
Hippocampus: It is the processes of stabilizing a memory trace after the initial acquisition. It may perhaps be thought of part of the process of encoding or of storage
How does the brain recollect from long-term memory?
- It goes from long-term memory, back to short-term memory, and then gets reconsolidated.
- During reconsolidation, it can be modified
T or F: it is safe to trust long-term memory
What is proedural/implicit learning?
when someone is tested and have the probable chance of giving the right answer, even though they think they don't know it.
Is motor division part of the CNS or PNS? What are the 2 main parts of the motor division?
PNS: somatic and autonomic division
The somatic division is a subset from what? What are the 3 parts in the CNS associated with it?
- PNS (motor division):
- a. precentral gyrus
- b. cerebellum
- c. deeper basal nuclei
What are the axons in the preentral gyrus called?
What is Tardive dyskinesia? what part of the brain does it effect?
A disorder with involuntary movements of the face and jaw, affeting the pyramidal tracts (axons in the precentral gyrus)
What part of the body does the somatic division control? How does it reach it?
Skeletal muscles: a neuron that starts in the CNS and has a single axon that travels all the way to the target muscle
In the somatic division, what NT is released at the synapse from the neuron to the neuron in the skeletal muscle? What are the receptors called in the skeletal muscle?
ACh: nicotinic cholinergic receptors
T or F: both the somatic and atonomic divisions have only one neuron to reach their target organ
False: the atonomic always has 2 neurons: from CNS to target
Parasympathetic and sympathetic come from what divisions?
Autonomic division in the PNS
What are the characteristics of the parasympathetic? (4 parts) what is it known as?
- "Rest and Digest":
- 1. contains 1 LONG neuron into a SHORT neuron
- 2. 2nd neuron releases ACh, the target has muscarinic cholinergic receptors
- 3. starts the salivary glands
- 4. Here the heart will start to return to resting
What iis the sympathetic known as? what are its characteristics?
- "Fight or flight":
- 1. Contains 1 SHORT neuron into a LONG neuron
- 2. 2nd neuron typically releases NE or EPI (norepinephrine and epinephrine)
- 3. It triggers the adrenal gland, dealing with hormones in the body
- 4. Here the heart will speed up
What does epinephrine do during anaphylactic shock?
It constricts the overdialated blood vessels to return BP to normal and start heart flow again
What are the things that are PURELY sympathetic?
- a. sweat glands
- b. smooth muscles in blood vessels (vaso motor)
What is difuse synapse? What is an example of it?
- smooth muscle: smooth muscl is onnected by gap junctions (electrically connected), so if one gets innervated, the neighboring cells also get excited.
- - When the autonomic motor neuron releases NTs across multiple smooth muscles are innervated
What is the function of sensory transduction?
It translates stimulus into electrical signals for your nervous system to understand
What are the 2 main classes of sensory receptors?
- Interoreceptors (inside the body)
- Extero receptors (receptors that detect stimulus outside of the body)
What are proprioceptors? what is the primary function?
- subsets of the mechanoreceptors:
- a. joint angle receptors
- b. muscle stretch receptors (the muscle spindles)
- c. tendon tension
- *these monitor irregularities in our body
Why are nociceptors different from other receptors?
pain receptors do not have adaptation like thermo or mechano receptors do
What are the types of receptors around the body?
What are the 2 version of general reception receptors? where are they found?
- 1. Free or naked dendritic ending (for temp. and pain)
- 2. encapsulated receptor (for touch pressure)
- *They are all connective tissue capsules (in deeper tissue than the epidermis
T or F: Efferent division carries information from the CNS to muscles or glands
T or F: the sympathetic/parasympathetic comes from the autonomic division. PNS or CNS? Afferent or Efferent?
True; pns; efferent
What are the 3 classes of neurons
- 1. sensory
- 2. motor
- 3. interneuron
What is the function of interneurons?
Integrates peripheral information to peripheral responses: for example, on receiving info through the afferent nerons when touching a hot object, interneurons signal efferent neurons that transmit to your hand and arm muscle to pull it away
What are 90% of cells within the CNS? What are their properties? (3 parts)
- Glial cells:
- communicate with neurons and among themselves through chemical signals
- main function helps support neurons both physically and metabolically
- homeostatically maintain the composition of the specialized extracellular environment surrounding the neurons
What are 2 important glial cells to know andn their fx?
- i. oligodendrocytes: these form the insulative myeline sheaths around the axons in the CNS
- ii. schwann cells: form the myelin forming cells in the PNS
What is contralateral? What is iposilateral?
- contra: pertaining to the other side.
- ipsi: sam side
Explain the CSF flow steps (5 steps)
- 1. CSF is produced by the choroid plexuses
- 2. it then flows through the 4 interconnected ventricles.
- 3. it escapes from the 4th ventricle at the base of the brain
- 4. From the 4th ventricle, it flows into the subarachnoid space between the meningial layers
- 5. It is finally reabsorbed from the subarachnoid space into the venous blood through the arachnoid villi.
What are the main lobes and their functions? (4)
- 1. occipital lobe: located in the back of the head, carries out the initial processing of visual input
- 2. temporal lobe: where auditory sensation is intially received
- 3. parietal lobe: primarily responsible for receiving and processing sensory inut
- 4. frontal lobe: responsible for 3 main functions:
- i. voluntary motor activity
- ii. speaking ability
- iii. elaboration of thought
What are the basal nuclei? function?
- a region located at the base of the brain composed of 4 clusters or nerve cells.
- responsible for body movement and coordination (motor control)
How do the basal nuclei play a role in motor control?
- inhibitin muscle tone throughout the body
- selecting and maintaining purposeful motor activity while suppressing useless or unwanted patterns of movement
Where is Parkinson's disease evident in the brain?
in the basal nuclei: it s a gradual destruction of neurons that release NT: dopamine in the basal nuclei
What is the function of the somatosensory cortex?
It is the site for initial cortical processing and preception of both somethetic and proprioceptive input
What are somasthetic and proprioception?
- somasthetic: sensations from the surface of the body
- proprioception: awareness of body position
What is the function of the primary motor cortex?
this confers voluntary control over movement produced by skeletal muscles
What are the 3 association areas and their function?
- 1. Prefrontal: this part of the brain "brainstorms"
- - planning for voluntary activity
- - decision making
- - creativity
- - personality traits
- - sites of oeration of working memoryy
- 2. PTO association: this lies in the interface for the 3 lobes
- - it pools and integrates somatic, auditory, and visua sensations provided by the 3 lobes
- - enables to get the "complete picture"
- 3. limbic association cortex
What is the role of the thalamus? (3 parts)
- a sensory relay station and is important in motor control
- - the thalamus screens out insignificant signals and routes the important sensory imulses to appropriate areas of the somatosensory cortex
- - it plays a role in motor by positively reinforcing voluntary behavior initiated by the cortex
What gland is below the thalamus?
What is the hypothalamus and its location?
it is a collection of specific nucleii and associated fibers. It lies beneath the thalamus
What are the functions of the hypothalamus? 5 parts
- Regulates many homeostatic functions:
- 1. controls thirst and urine output
- 2. body tomp
- 3. food intake
- 4. plays a role in emotional and behavioral patterns
- 5. participates in the sleep-wake cycle
What gland is attached below the hypothalamus?
T or F: Ependymal cells are responsible for helping regulate the composition of the CSF and movement
What is lateralization?
The brain's left and right side function the same way.
What is the cerebellum connected to in function?
Connected to motor areas
What is the main function of the CSF?
Keeps the brain bouyant, giving it cushioni.