1550: Development

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  1. Growth.

    Ways to measure growth? (2)
    Long Bones by measuring the growth plates.

    Teeth; a pattern of dentation gives prediction of health.
  2. What is meant by: 

    Cephalocaudal (growth)?


    Define the above.
    Grow in a "Head to tail" fashion.

    Fine motor skills from Center outward.
  3. When does growth & development occur (as we suspect)?
    Growth within the first 20 years.

    Development happens across the lifetime.
  4. Explain Freud briefly (body parts*)

    Id, ego, superego, libido.

    At what time does the superego develop and complete?
    • Introduced the unconsious mind and the defense mechanism.
    • Coined:
    • id-seeking immediate gratification.
    • Ego-realistic; balancing wants vs socially acceptable.
    • Superego-perfection, desire towards.

    Libido: psychosexual 5 stages of dev.

    Superego: starts @preschool age and ends @preschool age.
  5. What is Freud's 1st stage of development?

    What is Erikson's 1st stage of development?

    What is Piaget's 1st stage of development?
    Freud's: Oral stage (0 - 1 year) Pleasure is focused on oral activities: feeding and sucking.

    Erikson: (0 - 1.5 y) Trust vs Mistrust: When the infant’s needs are consistently met, the infant develops this sense of trust. 

    Piaget: (0 - 2 y) Sensori-motor
  6. Explain Erikson and his 8 stages of psychosocial development.

    (You don't skip a stage but can be stuck or regress, or partially accomplished before moving on to the next)
    • Trust vs Mistrust
    • Autonomy VS Shame&Doubt
    • Initiative VS Guilt
    • Industry VS Inferiority
    • Identity VS Role Confusion
    • Intimacy VS Isolation
    • Generativity VS Stagnation
    • Integrity VS Despair
  7. Jean Piaget: Theory of COG. Dev.

    4 stages and ages

    What stage/age deals w/ wanting to "know more about the world?"
    Sensori motor (~2yo): learning thru motor & reflex actions.

    • Preop (2-4yo): Egocentric
    • Intuitive (4-7yo) thought phase: reasoning, wanting to know about the world; *focusing on one item @ a time.

    Concrete (8-10yo): abstract thinking and judgement.

    Formal (11-15yo): hypothetical & deductive/rational reasoning.
  8. Kohlberg: Theory of MORAL dev.

    Ladder of Moral Dev.

    Explain the 3 stages (progresses upwards)
    -young children, school-age, adulthood
    Progression of 3 stages:

    Bottom: Young children obtain personal rewards and avoid punishment.

    Middle: School-aged model morals of family & peer group.

    Top: Adults value principles more internally; less influence from outside authority.
  9. Growth&Dev.

    Milesones: Infant (0-1 years)

    What are some Growth & Dev. concerns by 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months (i.e., what should infants be able to do @ that age?)

    • Growth concerns: 
    • 6 months: should have double birth wt.
    • 12 mos: should have tripled birth wt.

    • Dev. concerns:
    • 4 mos: fix & follow, smile
    • 8 mos: sit w/o help.
    • 10 mos: pincher grasp and crawl.
    • 12 mos: stand w/o support; "mama" "dada"
  10. Growth&Dev: 

    Milestones: Toddlers (1-3 years)

    Growth concerns by: age 2
    Development concerns: (language) age 2, 3 

    What is the toddler's favorite word?
    What should not be taken away from the toddler?

    Key concept for toddlers: psychosocial?
    • Growth concerns:
    • 2 years: quadruple (x4 birth wt.)

    • Dev. concerns:
    • 13 mos.: walk
    • Parallel play
    • 2 years: 2-word phrases
    • 3 years: short sentences

    • Favorite word: NO
    • Significant objects should not be taken away such as a favorite towel, toy.

    Attain a sense of autonomy and to experience separation and individuation.
  11. Growth&Dev:

    Milestones: Preschool (3-6 yo)

    Growth concerns
    Dev. concerns: how do they usually learn?

    What is the preschooler's favorite word?
    • Growth concerns:
    • Minimal average growth: 1.5 kg/yr & 4 cm/year.

    • Dev. concerns:
    • Fine motor coordination.
    • Dramatic or imaginative play, magical thinking

    Favorite word: Why?
  12. Growth&Dev:

    Milestones: School-age (6-12 yo)

    Growth concerns

    Psychosocial stage? (Erikson)

    What is the preschooler's favorite word?
    Growth: linear growth; girls > boys.

    Psychosocial stage: Initiative VS Guilt.
  13. Growth&Dev: 

    Milestones: Adolescence (12-18 yo)

    Growth concerns

    Psychosocial stage?
    Growth: puberty (sexual maturity)

    Psychosocial stage: Identity VS Role Strain.
  14. Growth&Dev: Adult 

    Young (18-25yo)
    Middle (25-65yo)
    Older (65+)
  15. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    What is the nursing role?
    Both characterized by inappropriate behaviors causing inattention; both neurological.

    boys > girls (school age)

    May be inherited (25% chance)

    • What may cause the disorder?
    • alcohol
    • premature
    • head injury
    • lead exposure
  16. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
    Childhood Disintegrative

    Risk factors?

    What is the nursing role?
    Social, emotional, and communication problems.

    • Risk factors:
    • Fragile X (x-linked mutation)
    • Alcohol
    • Advanced parental age
  17. What is the key to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?
    *early recognition is key
  18. Cerebral Palsy.

    What is the nursing role?
    Often a result of an insult to the brain.

    Cause developmental delays in the fetus.

    Usually < 2 yo.
  19. Failure to Thrive (FTT)

    What is it?
    Usually effects which age groups?

    What is the nursing role?
    Failure to thrive (FTT) is a term used to describe inadequate growth in infants and children

    Effects usually infant and young children.
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1550: Development
2015-04-07 03:52:49

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