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-caring for the environment started during the time of the (1)__________
- ecology means the Greek word (2)______ or house; ecology is the study of the environment
- scientific study of the relations of living organisms to (3)____________
- study of the structure and (4)_________ of nature
- structure: population < community < (5)_________
- (1) Greek Golden Age
- (2) oikos
- (3) one another and surrounding environment
- (4) function
- (5) ecosystem
What are the 3 characteristics of the Ecosystem?
- (1) No organism exists in isolation
- (2) Ecosystems are functional units
- (3) Living organisms interact with every other element in their local environment
The founder of ecology, (1)___________:
"Any unit that includes all organisms in a given area interacting with the physical environment so that energy leads to (2) What are these 3 things?
- (1) Eugene Odum
- (2) trophic structure, biotic diversity, material cycles
- What are made to make predictions based on assumptions and components as a concern for ecologists and other scientists? (1)
- Characteristics of (1):
--> used so that relationships can be discovered
--> informal (graphical or trends) and formal (mathematical expression)
--> constantly revised and refined to achieve close match of reality
--> pinpoint key variables
- What is the mode of analysing a consistent reciprocal influences between abiotic and biotic factors? (2)
- (1) Models
- (2) System Analysis
What are the questions that one asks about the ecosystem?
- What are the components? How is it constructed so as to become (1) _______, _______ , and ________?
- How does it obtain nutrients, transform, use, reuse and release from the environment?
- What sort of metabolic processes does the system operate?
- Are the transformations of such energy efficient?
(1) viable, operational and self- maintaining
As one proceeds from the cell to the ecosystem, attributes become (1) _____ and functions become (2) _______
- (1) more complex
- (2) less variable
What is --"a collection of parts that can be seen as a single whole thing because of interdependence and interaction of components"? (1)
What are the 2 types of (1)? (2)__________
(3)______ system that depends upon the environment to provide inputs and accept outputs (example: ozone layer absorbs UV light, light used for evaporation, generate winds etc.)
(4)______ system that uses some sort of feedback mechanism to regulate itself; it has ideal or set point
- (1) ecological system
- (2) open and cybernetic
- (3) open
- (4) cybernetic
What is "a group of individuals of the same species that occupy a given area and interbreed with each other?" (1)
(2) birth and death rates, immigration and emigration, dispersion patterns, intrinsic rate of increase, biotic potential, age distribution, growth forms and density
(3) adaptiveness, Darwinian concept of reproductive fitness
(4) What is the structure that involves a generational overlap such that there are age structures?
(5) % of population in different age classes and expressed in age pyramids
(6) When rate increases and factors are held constant, what happens?
- (1) population
- (2) statistical functions
- (3) genetic functions
- (4) age distribution
- (5) age structure
- (6) % of classes remain the same, population density is the same, zero population growth, birth and death rate are equal
What are the factors that affect population size?
- (1) limiting factors
- (2) law of tolerance
- (3) factor compensation
- (4) inability of organism to reach a certain place
- (5) extrinsic and intrinsic factors
- (6) population regulation
Factors that Affect Population Size:
_____(1) under a steady state conditions essential material available in amounts closely approaching critical minimum needed will tend to be limiting
_____(2) organisms modify environment to lessen the limiting effects of physical conditions of existence
_____(3) organisms have ecological minimum and maximum tolerance range, which represents limits of tolerance. beyond this point the organism is absent
_______(4a) generated within the population
_______(4b) generated outside the population
_______(5a) tendency for the population to return to its equilibrium density
_______(5b) tendency to remain at constant size
_______(6) What 2 factors account for an absent organism in the area?
- (1) law of minimum
- (2) factor compensation
- (3) law of tolerance
- (4a) intrinsic factors, (4b) extrinsic factors
- (5a) population regulation, (5b) population stability
- (6) inability of organism to reach a place (geographical barrier), presence of biological deterrents (competition, herbivory, parasitism)
What amendment states?
(1) national territory comprises the Phil. archipelago, with islands and waters embraces, all other territories consisting of terrestrial, fluvial and aerial domains, including territorial sea, seabed, subsoil, insular shelves and submarine areas. Water around, between, connecting islands of the archipelago regardless of breadth and dimensions form part of the internal waters of the Philippines
(2) taking into account the requirements of conservation, ecology, development and subject to requirements of agrarian reform, Congress shall determine by law the size of lands of public domain which may be acquired, developed, held or leased and the conditions therefore.
(3) state shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature
- (1) 1987 Constitution, Article I
- (2) 1987 Constitution, Article XII, Section 3
- (3) 1987 Constitution, Article II, Section 16
This Executive order was implemented by DENR which requires responsibility for the conservation, management, development, and proper use of the country's environment and natural resources
Executive Order (EO) No. 192 on June 10, 1987
- process of evaluating and predicting the likely impacts of the projects (including cumulative impacts) on the environment during construction, commissioning, operation and abandonment
-includes designing appropriate mitigating and enhancement measures addressing these consequences to protect the environment and community's welfare
-undertake by among others the project proponent and/ or EIA consultant, EMB, a Review Committee and communities and other stakeholders
Environmental Impact Assessment
What stipulations do 1977 PD 1151 Phil. Environmental Policy under the EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) proclaim?____________(1)
What stipulations do 1977 PD 1152 Phil. Environmental Policy under the EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) proclaim?____________(2)
What stipulations do 1978 PD 1586 Phil. Environmental Policy under the EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) proclaim?
(1) required proponents of all government and private projects affecting the quality of the environment to prepare an assessment of the project's environmental impacts
(2) required all land use management regulating or enforcing agencies to consider significant environmental impacts, as well as other aspects in locating industries
(3) proponents of environmentally critical projects (ECPs) and those located in environmentally critical areas (ECAs) are required to examine the projects' impacts on the environment; secure an Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC) from the president of his duly authorized representative
What does the 1981 Presidential Proclamation 2146 state?
proclaimed certain areas and types of projects environmentally critical (ECAs and ECPs) and within the scope of the EIS system
What are the co-located projects and single projects?
- 1. Major mining and quarry projects
- 2. major infrastructure
- 3. heavy industries
- 4. resource extractive projects
- 5. golf courses
Examples of Environmentally critical areas:
- 1. national parks, wildlife reserves, sanctuaries
- 2. areas of unique, historic, archeological, scientific interest
- 3. areas occupied by cultural communities and tribes
- 4. areas frequently visited by natural calamities
- 5. areas with critical slopes, prime agricultural land
- 6. recharge areas of aquifers, water bodies
- 7. mangrove/ coral reef areas
What law states:
(1) establish basic principles and framework relating to the appropriate, control and conservation of water resources to achieve the optimum development and rational utilization of these resources
(2) acquisition of rights over the use of waters or the taking or diverting of waters from a natural source in the manner and for any purpose allowed by law. Examples of these pursposes include (a) domestic, (b)_______,
(c) irrigation, (d)___________, (e)_______, (f) livestock raising, (g) industrial, (h) recreational
Philippine Water Code (PD 1067) in 1976 Amended 2005, Article 2, Section A
Philippine Water Code (PD 1067) in 1976 Amended 2005, Article 9, Section A
- (b) municipal
- (d) power generation
- (e) fisheries
What law states that--- there is a classification and administration of all designated protected areas to maintain essential ecological processes and life-support systems, to preserve genetic diversity, to ensure sustainable use of resources and to maintain their natural conditions to the greatest extent possible
-provide some examples of categories of these protected areas: (a) strict nature reserve, (b) natural park, (c)______, (d) wildlife sanctuary, (e)________, (f)______ and natural biotic areas with categories established by law, convention/ international agreements which the Phil. Gov't is a signatory
National Integrated Areas System Act of 1992 (RA 7586)--- (NIPAS)
- (c) national monument
- (e) protected landscapes and seascapes
- (f) resource reserve
What does the clean water act of 2004 (RA 9275) state?
- provide comprehensive and integrated strategy to prevent and minimize pollution in water bodies through a multi-sectoral and participatory approach involving all stakeholders
- primarily applies to abatement and control of pollution from land-based sources
What does the ecological solid waste management act of 2000 (RA 9003) proclaim about the state?
- The state must adopt a systematic, comprehensive and ecological solid waste management program which shall:
- - ensure the protection of public health and environment
- - utilize environmentally-sound methods that maximize the utilization of valuable resource reduction and encourage resources conservation and recovery
- - composting, recycling, reuse and recovery before collection, treatment and disposal
What does the Renewable Energy Act of 2008 (RA 9593) state?
- - an act promoting the development, utilization and commercialization of renewable energy sources and for other purposes
- - accelerate the exploration of and development of renewable energy sources
- including biomass, solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, ocean energy sources
- - energy self-reliance; reduce dependency on fossil fuels
RA 6969: ______________(1)
(2)_______: Philippine Mining Act of 1995
(3)_______: Environmental Awareness and Education Act of 2008
RA 9729: ______________(4)
(5)_______: Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010
- (1) Toxic and Hazardous Waste Act of 1990
- (2) RA 7942
- (3) RA 9512
- (4) Climate Change Act of 2009
- (5) RA 10121
What groups implement the environmental laws?
DENR, regional development councils, (1)____, LGUs, (2)_____, pyramid of governance which includes: (3- 3 groups)
- (1) provincial offices
- (2) environmental management plans
- (3) governance, private sector, civil society
Laguna Lake where 100 streams drain into...is under what authority?
Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA)
This law says that "the state shall recognize and promote all the rights of the Indigenous Cultural Communities/ Indigenous Peoples (ICC/IPs) hereunder enumerated within the framework of the Constitution"
-office created under the RA 8371: includes office of the president--primary government agency responsible for formulation and implementation of policies
Republic Act No. 8371 or "The Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997
National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP)