ChapterNine - Respiratory System (terms)

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ChapterNine - Respiratory System (terms)
2015-03-11 15:45:03

Respiratory System terms
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  1. Respiratory System
    brings oxygen into the bloodstream, through which it is transported to all body cells
  2. Respiration
    the process of providing cells with oxygen
  3. Acapnia
    The absence of carbon dioxide.
  4. Anoxia
    The absence of oxygen
  5. Aphonia
    The absence of voice
  6. Apnea
    a longer-than-normal pause between breaths
  7. Bradypnea
    abnormal slowing of breathing rhythm
  8. bronchospasm
    a narrowing of the airway caused by the contraction of smooth muscles in the walls of the tiny tubes known as bronchioles within the lungs
  9. Cheyne-Stokes respiration
    is a repeated pattern of distressed breathing marked by a gradual increase of deep breathing, followed by shallow breathing, and apnea.
  10. dysphonia
    the symptom of a hoarse voice
  11. dyspnea
    difficulty breathing, usually caused by a respiratory disease or cardiac disorder
  12. eupnea
    normal breathing rhythm
  13. epistaxis
    a nosebleed. can be a sign of high blood pressure, a nasal sinus infection, inhalation of a toxic irritant or particle, or a blow to the face. It is also called a "rhinorrhagia" - abnormal discharge of nose
  14. hemoptysis
    the symptom of coughing and spitting up blood.
  15. hemothorax
    Chest blood. It is the pooling of blood within the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs
  16. hypercapnia
    excessive levels of carbon dioxide in the blood
  17. hypocapnia
    low levels of carbon dioxide in the blood
  18. hyperpnea
    The sign of abnormally deep breathing or an abnormally high rate of breathing
  19. hypopnea
    Abnormally shallow breathing
  20. Hypoventilation
    a reduced breathing rhythm that fails to meet the body's gas exchange demands
  21. Hyperventilation
    Accelerated breathing rhythm
  22. hypoxemia
    a respiratory deficiency in which the oxygen levels in the blood are abnormally low
  23. hypoxia
    the sign of low levels of oxygen throughout the body
  24. laryngospasm
    the closure of the glottis, the opening into the larynx, due to muscular contractions of the throat.
  25. orthopnea
    is the limited ability to breathe when lying down and becomes relieved when sitting upright
  26. paroxysm
    refers to a sudden onset of symptomatic sharp pain or convulsion
  27. sputum
    an expectorated (coughed out from the lungs) matter. Contains mucus, inhaled particulates, and sometimes pus or blood
  28. tachypnea
    rapid breathing
  29. thoracalgia
    the symptom of pain in the chest region. Alternate meaning - thoracodynia
  30. Thoracodynia
    the symptom of pain in the chest region. Alternate meaning - thoracalgia
  31. asphyxia
    the absence of respiratory ventilation, or suffocation. 

    literally means "condition without a pulse"
  32. asthma
    • a condition of the lungs that is characterized by widespread narrowing of the bronchioles and formation of mucous plugs.
    • It produces the symptoms wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and frequent coughing during an episode, the frequency of which varies with every patient.
  33. atelectasis
    condition in which trauma or disease causes aveoli to collapse, preventing air from entering. Commonly called Collapsed Lung
  34. bronchiectasis
    a chronic abnormal dilation (widening) of the bronchi
  35. bronchitis
    inflammation of the bronchi
  36. bronchogenic carcinoma
    an aggressive form of cancer arising from cells within the bronchi
  37. bronchopneumonia
    an cute inflammatory disease involving the bronchioles and the alveoli.

    often occurs in a lobe of a lung, lending it the alternate name of Lobar pneumonia
  38. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    an obstruction of air flow to and from the lungs due to chronic bronchitis and emphysema
  39. coccidioidomycosis
    A fungal infection of the upper respiratory tract, which often spreads to the lungs and other organs
  40. coryza
    The common cold is caused by a virus that infects the upper respiratory tract causing local inflammation. It is clinically called ______

    It is also called Rhinitis
  41. croup
    A viral infectious disease that is relatively common among infants and young children produces a characteristic hoarse cough with a sound resembling the bark of a dog. The cough results from a swelling of the larynx in response to a viral infection.

    The clinical term is Laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)
  42. cystic fibrosis (CF)
    A severe hereditary disease that is characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract, digestive tract, and elsewhere.
  43. emphysema
    chronic lung disease characterized by dyspnea, chronic cough, barrel chest, and chronic hypoxemia and hypercapnia
  44. epiglottitis
    inflammation of the epiglottis
  45. laryngitis
    inflammation of the larynx
  46. legionellosis
    a form of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella peumophilia

    also called Legionnaires' disease
  47. lung cancer
    cancer that arises from the cells lining the bronchi or from the soft tissues of the lung; also called adenocarcinoma of the lung
  48. nasopharyngitis
    inflammation of the nose and pharynx
  49. pertussis
    • an acute infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi that produces spasmodic coughing
    • Also known as the whooping cough
  50. pharyngitis
    • inflammation of the pharynx.
    • is often called "sore throat"
  51. pleural effusion
    a disease in which fluid leaks into the pleural cavity due to injury or infection of the pleural membrane
  52. pleuritis
    • inflammation of the pleural membranes.
    • also called pluerisy
  53. pleuropneumonia
    inflammation of the pleural membranes and the lungs
  54. pneumoconiosis
    inflammation of the lungs, when caused by the chronic inhalation of fine particles.

    the most common forms of this are asbestosis, caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers. and silicosis, caused by inhalation of fine silicone dust
  55. pneumonia
    inflammation of soft lung tissue caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal pathogens that results in the formation of an exudate within alveoli; it can also be by smoke inhalation
  56. pneumonitis
    inflammatory condition of the lungs that is independent of a particular cause
  57. pneumothorax
    abnormal presence of air or gas within the pleural cavity
  58. pulmonary edema
    The accumulation of fluid within the tiny air sacs within the lungs (the alveoli) is a response to infection or injury
  59. pulmonary embolism (PE)
    a blockage in the pulmonary circulation due to a mobile blood clot
  60. pyothorax
    • the presence of pus in the pleural cavity.
    • it is also known as empyema
  61. respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
    a severe respiratory disease that is characterized by rapid respiratory failure; one form affects newborns (neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, NRDS) another affects adults (adult or acute respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS)
  62. rhinitis
    inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity
  63. severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
    a viral infection that causes lung inflammation, alveolar damage, and atelectasis
  64. sinusitis
    inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
  65. tonsillitis
    inflammation of one or more tonsils
  66. tracheitis
    inflammation of the trachea
  67. tracheostenosis
    narrowing of the trachea
  68. tuberculosis (TB)
    • infection of the lungs by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium
    • the constructed term literally means "condition of a little swelling"
  69. upper respiratory infection (URI)
    a generalized infection of the upper respiratory tract (nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx)
  70. acid-fast bacilli smear (AFB)
    a clinical test performed on sputum to identify the presence of bacteria that react to acid
  71. adenoidectomy
    surgical removal of a chronically inflamed adenoid (pharyngeal tonsil)
  72. antihistamine
    a therapeutic drug that inhibits the effects of histamine
  73. arterial blood gases (ABGs)
    a clinical test on arterial blood to identify blood levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide
  74. aspiration
    the procedure that removes fluid, air, or foreign bodies with suction
  75. auscultation
    a procedure that involves listening to sounds within the body as part of a physical examination, often with the aid of a stethoscope
  76. bronchodilation
    procedure that uses a bronchodilating agent to relax the smooth muscles of the airways in an effort to stop bronchial constriction
  77. bronchography
    the X-ray imaging of the bronchi using a contrast medium to highlight the bronchial tree
  78. chest CT scan
    diagnostic imaging of the chest by computed tomography
  79. chest X-ray (CXR).
    • an X-ray image of the thoracic cavity that is used to diagnose tuberculosis, tumors, and other conditions of the lungs
    • Also called a chest radiography
  80. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
    a device that is commonly used to regulate breathing during sleep as a treatment for sleep apnea
  81. ears, nose, and throat specialist (ENT)
    • A physician specializing in the treatment of upper respiratory tract disease.
    • Alternate terms include otolaryngologist, otonasolaryngologist, and otorhinolaryngologist
  82. endotracheal
    pertaining to within the trachea
  83. endotracheal intubation
    insertion of a noncollapsible breathing tube into the trachea through the nose or mouth
  84. expectorant
    a drug that breaks up the mucus and promotes the coughing reflex to expel the mucus
  85. incentive spirometry
    a valuable postoperative breathing therapy
  86. laryngectomy
    surgical removal of the larynx
  87. laryngoscopy
    diagnostic procedure that used a laryngoscope (modified endoscope used to visually examine the larynx) to view the larynx
  88. laryngotracheotomy
    surgical incision into the larynx and trachea
  89. lobectomy
    surgical removal of a single lobe of a lung
  90. mechanical ventilation
    medical treatment that provides supplemental oxygen to patients in respiratory distress with a ventilator (device that pushes air into the patients airway)
  91. nebulizer
    a device used to convert a liquid medication to a mist and deliver it to the lungs with the deep inhalation
  92. oximetry
    procedure that measures oxygen levels in the blood using an oximeter (an instrument that measures oxygen levels in the blood)
  93. pleurocentesis
    surgical puncture and aspiration of fluid from the pleural cavity
  94. thoracentesis
    a surgical puncture using a needle and syringe into the thoracic cavity to aspirate plueral fluid for diagnosis or treatment; also called thoracocentesis
  95. pneumonectomy
    surgical removal of a lung; also called pneumectomy
  96. pulmonary angiography
    a diagnostic procedure that evaluated the circulation of the lungs
  97. pulmonary function tests (PFT)
    a series of diagnostic tests that determine the cause of lung disease by evaluating lung capacity through spirometry
  98. pulmonologist
    a physician specializing in the treatment of diseases affecting lower respiratory tract, particularly the lungs
  99. resuscitation
    an emergency procedure that is used to restore breathing known as pulmonary resuscitation
  100. rhinoplasty
    surgical repair of the nose
  101. septoplasty
    a type of rhinoplasty that involves surgical repair of a deviation of the nasal septum to improve breathing
  102. TB skin test
    simple skin test used to determine the presence of a tuberculosis infection; also called PPD skin test and Mantoux skin test
  103. thoracostomy
    surgical puncture into the chest cavity, usually for insertion of a drainage or air tube
  104. thoracotomy
    surgical incision into the chest wall
  105. tracheoplasty
    surgical repair of the trachea
  106. tracheostomy
    surgical creation of an opening into the trachea, usually for insertion of a breathing tube
  107. tracheotomy
    surgical incision into the trachea
  108. ventilation-perfusion scanning (VPS)
    diagnostic tool that uses nuclear medicine or radioactive material to evaluate pulmonary function; also called lung scan, and V/Q scan