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2015-03-30 18:35:58

intro to health
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  1. Pathology
    The study of disease
  2. Etiology
    Study of cause of a disease
  3. Pathogenesis
    The development of disease (progression)
  4. Infection
    Colonization of the body by pathogens
  5. Disease
    An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
  6. Transient Microbiota
    may be present for days, weeks, months ( include pathogen, interchange use)
  7. Normal Microbiota
    Permanently colonize the host ( normal flora )
  8. Symbiosis
    Relationship between normal microbiota and the host (live together, positive or negative)
  9. Microbial antagonism
    competition between microbes (produce to out compete competitors)
  10. Normal microbiota protect host by
    • occupying niche that pathogens might occupy
    • producing acid
    • producing bacteriocins
  11. Mutualistic
    both benefit
  12. commensual
    1 benefit, other no harm
  13. parasitic
    1 benefit, 1 harm
  14. Symptom
    a change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease (felt, can't measure)
  15. Sign
    a change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease ( measured and seen )
  16. Syndrome
    a specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease
  17. Communicable disease
    disease that is spread from one host to another (can be spread, cyphilis- cant get through sneeze)
  18. Contagious disease
    a disease that is easily spread from one host to another ( flu- easily spread)
  19. Noncommunicable disease
    a disease that is not transmitted from one host to another
  20. Virulence
    microbe determined by its ability to establish itself in a host, and cause damage
  21. Virulence factor
    contributes to its ability to establish itself in the host and cause damage
  22. True pathogens
    capable of causing disease in healthy persons with normal immune defenses
  23. Opportunistic pathogens
    cause disease when the host's defenses are compromised
  24. Endemic disease
    disease constantly present in a population (consistently)
  25. Epidemic disease
    disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time
  26. Pandemic disease
    worldwide epidemic
  27. Herd immunity
    immunity is most of a population ( sot susceptible to disease , b/c most can't give it to you so no way)
  28. Incidence
    fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time (only in feb, how many people contracted it at a time)
  29. Prevalence
    fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time (from Jan to March, how many people just got it/had it (total) whole)
  30. Sporadic disease
    disease that occurs occasionally in a population
  31. Acute disease
    symptoms develop rapidly
  32. chronic
    disease develops slowly
  33. Subacute disease
    symptoms between acute and chronic
  34. Latent
    disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive
  35. Local infection
    pathogens are limited to a small area of the body
  36. Systemic infection
    an infection throughout the body
  37. Sepsis
    toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes from a focus of infection
  38. Bacteremia
    bacteria in the blood
  39. Septicemia
    growth of bacteria in the blood ( very dangerous)
  40. Toxemia
    toxins in the blood
  41. Virema
    viruses in the blood
  42. Primary infection
    acute infection that causes the initial illness (flu)
  43. Secondary infection
    opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection
  44. subclinical disease
    no noticeable signs or symptoms (inapparent infection, CMV)
  45. Stages of disease
  46. Resrvoir
    • Primary habitat in the natural world from which a pathogen originates
    • often a human or animal carrier
    • also plant, water, soil
  47. Transmitter
    Individual or object from which an infection is acquired
  48. Syphilis
    reservoir and transmitter are the same
  49. Hepatitis A
    a reservoir is a human, transmitter is food
  50. Vehicle trasnmission
    transmission by an inanimate reservoir (food, water, air)
  51. Direct contact
    requires close association between infected and susceptible
  52. Indirect contact
    spread by fomites (objects- spoon)
  53. Droplet
    Transmission via airborne droplets (sneeze)
  54. Arthropods especially fleas ticks and misquotes transmit disease by
    Mechanical and biological transmission
  55. Mechanical transmission
    arthropods carries pathogen on feet
  56. Biological transmission
    pathogen reproduces in vector
  57. Zoonotic infection
    from animals
  58. Nosocomial infection
    • acquired as a result of a hospital stay 
    • affect 5-15% of all hospital patients
  59. Mechanism of Pathogenicity
  60. Number of invading mechanism
  61. LD50 Infectious dose
    Infectious dose for 50% of the test population, way to qualify how infectious it is
  62. LD50 lethal dose
    LD50 lethal dose (of a toxin) for 50% of the test population, required to kill , don't need much then it is potent
  63. Portal of entry: skin LD50 
    10-50 endospores, more likely to get
  64. Portal of entry inhalation LD50
    10000-20000 endospores, less likely to get
  65. Portal of entry ingestion LD50
    250000-1000000 endospores, very unlikely
  66. Adhesins/ligands
    • bind to receptor on host cells
    • forms biofilms
  67. Capsules
    prevent phagocytosis- form white blood cells being able to phagocytosis
  68. Cell wall components
    • M protein-resists phagocytosis
    • MYcolic acid (waxy lipid)- resists digestion
  69. _____ can help pathogens ______ body defense
    Enzymes, resist
  70. Toxin
    substance that contributes to pathogenicity
  71. Toxigenicity
    ability to produce toxin
  72. Toxemia
    presence of toxin in the host's blood
  73. Toxoid
    Inactivated toxin used in a vaccine
  74. Antitoxins
    antibodies against a specific toxin, neutralize toxin
  75. Endotoxins
    found on outside of cell wall but part of cell wall
  76. Endotoxin: source
    gram negative, from lipids
  77. Endotoxin: relation to microbe
    outer membrane
  78. Endotoxin: Chemistry
    Lipid A
  79. Endotoxin: fever
  80. Endotoxin: Neutralized by antitoxins
  81. Endotoxin: LD50
    Relatively large
  82. Endotoxins and the Pyrogenic Response
  83. Exotoxin
    • Made inside of cell, released through exocytosis
  84. Exotoxin: Source
    mostly gram negative
  85. Exotoxin: relation to microbe
    by-products of growing cell
  86. Exotoxin: chemistry
  87. Exotoxin: Fever
  88. Exotoxin: neutralized by antitoxin
  89. Exotoxin: LD50 
  90. The action of an A-B Exotoxin
  91. Lyse (the disintegration of a cell by rupture of the cell wall or membrane) host's cell by
    • Making protein channels in the plasma membrane
    •         -Leukocidins- white blood cells
    •         -Hemolysins- red blood cells
    •         -Streptolysins- membranes (general )
    • Disruptin phospholipid bilayer
  92. Superantigens
    • Cause an intense immune response due to release of cytokines from host cells
    •        -symptoms- fever, nausea, vomiting,                 diarrhea, shock, death