Soc 204 Exam 3

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Soc 204 Exam 3
2015-03-11 23:16:59
sociology 204 sociology204 osu test exam exam3
Sociology 204 Exam 3
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  1. Borderlands
    The area of common culture along the border between Mexico and the US
  2. Colonialism
    The maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over a people by a foreign power for an extended period
  3. Dependency Theory
    An approach contending that industrialized nations continue to exploit developing countries for their own gain
  4. Gross National Income (GNI)
    The total value of a nation's goods and services
  5. Human Rights
    Universal moral rights possessed by all people because they are human
  6. Modernization
    The far-reaching process by which nations pass from traditional forms of social organization toward those characteristic of post-Industrial Revolution societies
  7. Multinational Corporation
    A commercial organization that is headquartered in one country but does business throughout the world
  8. Neocolonialism
    Continuing dependence of former colonies on foreign countries
  9. Remittances (AKA remesas)
    The monies that immigrants return to their families of origin
  10. World Systems Analysis
    A view of the global economic system as one divided between certain industrialized nations that control wealth and developing countries that are controlled and exploited
  11. Bisexual
    A category of sexual orientation that includes those who are sexually attracted to both men and women
  12. Expressive Leader
    The person in the family who bears responsibility for the maintenance of harmony and internal emotional affairs
  13. Feminism
    The belief in social, economic, and political equality for women
  14. Gender
    The social and cultural significance that we attach to the biological differences of sex
  15. Glass Ceiling
    An invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual's gender, race, or ethnicity
  16. Heteronormativity
    A term that sociologists use to describe the cultural presupposition that heterosexuality is the appropriate standard for sexual identity and practice and that alternative sexualities are deviant, abnormal, or wrong
  17. Heterosexual
    A category of sexual orientation that includes those who are sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex
  18. Homosexual
    A category of sexual orientation that includes those who are sexually attracted to members of the same sex
  19. Institutional Discrimination
    A pattern of treatment that systematically denies a group access to resources and opportunities as part of society's normal operations
  20. Instrumental Leader
    The person in the family who bears responsibility for the completion of tasks, focuses on more distant goals, and manages the external relationship between one's family and other social institituions
  21. Intersectionality
    Gender, sexuality, race, ethnicity, and class must not be studied in isolation, because they have intermingled effects on our identity, knowledge, and outcomes
  22. Multiple Masculinities
    The idea that men learn and play a full range of gender roles
  23. Second Shift
    The double burden - work outside the home followed by childcare and housework - that many women face and few men share equitably
  24. Sex
    The biological differences between males and females
  25. Sexism
    The ideology that one sex is superior to the other
  26. Sexual Orientation
    The categories of people to whom we are sexually attracted
  27. Sexuality
    Denotes our identities and activities as sexual beings
  28. Standpoint Theory
    Because our social positions shape our perceptions, a more complete understanding of social relations must incorporate the perspectives of marginalized voices
  29. Transgender
    People who appear to be biologically one sex but who identify with the gender of another
  30. Affirmative Action
    Positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities
  31. Amalgamation
    The process through which a majority group and a minority group combine to form a new group
  32. Anti-Semitism
    Anti-Jewish prejudice
  33. Apartheid
    A former policy of the South African government, designed to maintain the separation of Blacks and other non-Whites from the dominant Whites
  34. Assimilation
    The process through which a person forsakes his or her own cultural tradition to become part of a different culture
  35. Black Power
    A political philosophy, promoted by many younger Blacks in the 1960s, that supported the creation of Black-controlled political and economic institutions
  36. Color-blind Racism
    The use of race-neutral principles to perpetuate a racially unequal status quo
  37. Contact Hypothesis
    The theory that in cooperative circumstances interracial contact between people of equal status will reduce prejudice
  38. Discrimination
    The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or other arbitrary reasons
  39. Ethnic Group
    A group that is set apart from others primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns
  40. Exploitation Theory
    A belief that views racial subordination in the US as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism
  41. Expulsion
    The systematic removal of a group of people from society
  42. Genocide
    The deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation
  43. Hate Crime
    A criminal offense committed because of the offender's bias against an individual based on race, religion, ethnicity, national origin, or sexual orientation
  44. Minority Group
    A subordinate group whose members, even if they represent a numeric majority, have significantly less control or power over their own lives than the members of a dominant or majority group have over theirs
  45. Model or Ideal Minority
    A subordinate group whose members supposedly have succeeded economically, socially, and educationally despite past prejudice and discrimination
  46. Pluralism
    Mutual respect for one another's cultures among the various groups in a society, which allows minorities to express their own cultures without experiencing prejudice
  47. Prejudice
    A negative attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minority
  48. Racial Formation
    A sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyed
  49. Racial Group
    A group that is set apart from others because of physical differences that have taken on social significance
  50. Racial Profiling
    Any police-initiated action based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than on a person's behavior
  51. Racism
    The belief that one race is supreme and all others are innately inferior
  52. Segregation
    The physical separation of two groups of people in terms of residence, workplace, and social events; often imposed on a minority group by a dominant group
  53. Stereotype
    An unreliable generalization about all members of a group that does not recognize individual differences within the group
  54. Symbolic Ethnicity
    An ethnic identity that emphasizes concerns such as ethnic food or political issues rather than deeper ties to one's ethnic heritage
  55. Equilibrium Model
    The view that society tends toward a state of stability or balance
  56. Evolutionary Theory
    A theory of social change that holds that society is moving in a definite direction
  57. Luddites
    Rebellious craft workers in 19th-century England who destroyed new factory machinery as part of their resistance to the Industrial Revolution
  58. New Social Movement
    An organized collective activity that addresses values and social identities, as well as improvements in the quality of life
  59. Public sociology
    The process of brining the insights gained through sociological observation and analysis into the public sphere, thereby seeking to bring about positive social change
  60. Relative Deprivation
    The conscious feeling of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities
  61. Resource Mobilization
    The ways in which a social movement utilizes such resources as money, political influence, access to media, and personnel
  62. Social Change
    Significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture, including norms and values
  63. Social Movement
    An organized collective activity to bring about or resist fundamental change in an existing group or society
  64. Vested interests
    Those people or groups who will suffer in the event of social change and who have a stake in maintaining the status quo
  65. Authority
    Power that is recognized as legitimate by the people over whom it is exercised
  66. Capitalism
    An economic system in which the owners of private property compete in the marketplace in pursuit of profit
  67. Charismatic Authority
    Power made legitimate by a leader's exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his or her followers
  68. Deindustrialization
    The systematic, widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity, such as factories and plants
  69. Democracy
    In a literal sense, government by the people
  70. Dictatorship
    A government in which one person has nearly total power to make and enforce laws
  71. Downsizing
    Reductions in a company's workforce as part of deindustrialization
  72. Economy
    A social institution dedicated to the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
  73. Elite Model
    A view of society as being ruled by a small group of individuals who share a common set of political and economic interests
  74. Force
    The actual or threatened use of coercion to impose one's will on others
  75. Informal Economy
    Transfers of money, goods, or services that are not reported to the government
  76. Laissez-Faire
    The principle that people should be able to compete freely, without government intervention, in the capitalist marketplace
  77. Mixed Economy
    An economic system that combines elements of both capitalism and socialism
  78. Monarchy
    A form of government headed by a single member of a royal family, usually a king, queen, or some other hereditary ruler
  79. Monopoly
    Control of a market by a single business firm
  80. Offshoring
    The transfer of work to foreign contractors
  81. Oligarchy
    A form of government in which a few individuals rule
  82. Peace
    The absence of war, or more broadly, a proactive effort to develop cooperative relations among nations
  83. Pluralist Model
    A view of society in which many competing groups within the community have access to government, so that no single group is dominant
  84. Political System
    The social institution that is founded on a recognized set of procedures for implementing and achieving society's goals
  85. Politics
    The competition between individuals or groups over the allocation of valued resources
  86. Power
    The ability to exercise one's will over others even if they resist
  87. Power Elite
    A small group of military, industrial, and government leaders who control the fate of the US
  88. Rational-Legal Authority
    Authority based on formally agreed-upon and accepted rules, principles, and procedures of conduct that are established in order to accomplish goals in the most efficient manner possible
  89. Representative Democracy
    A system of government in which citizens elect political leaders to make decisions on behalf of the people
  90. Socialism
    An economic system under which the means of production and distribution are collectively owned
  91. Terrorism
    The use or threat of violence against random or symbolic targets in pursuit of political aims
  92. Totalitarianism
    Virtually complete government control and surveillance over all aspects of a society's social and political life
  93. Traditional Authory
    Legitimate power conferred by custom and accepted practice
  94. War
    Conflict between organizations that posses trained combat forces equipped with deadly weapons