Fire Final

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  1. Three sides of fire triangle
    • Heat 
    • Oxygen
    • Fuel
  2. Three methods of heat transfer
    • Convection-can be modified by wind
    • Radiation
    • Conduction-least important
  3. Three environmental elements affecting fire behavior
    • weather-subject to change
    • fuel 
    • topography-most constant
  4. factors of fuels which affect the start and spread of wild land fire
    • horizontal continuity
    • vertical arrangement
    • size and shape of fuel
    • moisture content of fuel
    • temperature
  5. factors that affect fuel moisture content
    • wind
    • temperature
    • precipitation
    • relative humidity
  6. Ways wind can affect fire spread
    • dry out fuel
    • change direction of spreading fire
    • spread flames
    • adds oxygen
    • speed of flames
  7. factors of topography which can influence fire ignition and spread
    • percent of the slope
    • aspect, direction slope is facing 
    • elevation
    • shape of terrain, rolling hills or flat country
  8. Dangerous conditions that can develop when a fire is burning in a steep narrow canyon
    • box canyon
    • chimney effect
    • entrapment
    • flames heat up fuel on other side of canyon
  9. How long ago did the first fire occur
    400 million years
  10. Four original fire sources
    • 1. Lightening 
    • 2. volcanic rock
    • 3. ET impact 
    • 4. Rock vs. Rock
  11. What is a fire regime
    history of fire in an area over a certain period of time
  12. Why early hominids burned wild land
    • clear land
    • have new growth in plants
    • get rid of invasive species
    • help animals thrive
    • germinate plants that need fire to grow
  13. Earths atmosphere is composed of
    • 21% oxygen
    • 78% nitrogen
    • 1% other
  14. Anthropogenic
    When man first started using fire
  15. Swidden
    Burning slash and fields for agricultural purposes
  16. Which has a greater surface to volume ratio and why?
  17. 4 main vegetation fuel types
    • Grass
    • Brush
    • Slash
    • Timber
  18. Atmospheric layer closest to earth, where weather takes place
    • Troposhere
    • 10-12 Km or 7-9 miles
  19. As temperature rises, relative humidity ____?
  20. Curfew
    • when people were told at a certain time to cover their fire
    • comes from a french word
  21. Boreal forests
    forests in the northern hemisphere that make up a lot of vegetation
  22. 4 classifications of fire regimes
    • non fire
    • understory
    • stand replacement
    • mixed severity
  23. How can a fire regime change
    as the landscape changes over time, the fuel types can disappear from an area
  24. Components of a fire regime
    • Time: fire return interval
    • Fire Behavior: size/intensity
  25. considerations of a perscribed burn plan
    • SSA
    • Need approval
    • reason for burn
    • need a map
    • weather prescription
    • contingency plan
  26. PNF different from a controlled burn
    • Lightening strike hits (PNF)
    • Some were natural fire but one was debris fire that go loose, weather put fire out
  27. Objective of Cal Fire
    keep wild land fires under 10 acres or less 95% of the time
  28. Backdraft
    When a fire is inside a building and you open a door letting in oxygen which causes the fire to blow out the door
  29. Fire extinguisher classes
    • A. ordinary combustibles
    • B. Flammable liquids
    • C. Charged Electric lines
    • D. Flammable metals
  30. Blowup
    smaller that a fire storm and is when a fire intensifies quickly
  31. Dodge in Mann Gulch Fire
    He lit a escape/safety fire in order to create a safe zone
  32. PRC 4290
    roadways, street numbers, water storage
  33. Pheonix
    turns to fire when it gets old and then rebirths from the ashes
  34. Firestorm
    when wind currents are sucked into a fire creating oxygen allowing the fire to increase at a rapid rate
  35. Backfire
    getting ahead of the fire and plowing a fire breaker. Then lighting the edge of the fire breaker on fire in order to fight fire with fire
  36. Historical wild land or wild land urban interface fires
    • Peshtigo fire
    • Chicago fire
    • Storm King
    • Mann Gulch
    • Oakland hills
    • San Diego
  37. All risk fire department
    department can respond to any call
  38. 4th fire
  39. Three E's of fire prevention
    • Enforcement
    • Education
    • Engineering
  40. Motives for Arson
    • Revenge
    • Crime Concealment
    • Vandalism
    • Excitement 
    • Profit 
    • Extremism
  41. Visual indicators of extreme fire
    • fire wall
    • crowning
    • rapid spread 
    • spotting
    • whirls
    • torching
  42. Peshtigo was most extreme for
    • fuel load
    • weather
    • human habitation
  43. Peshtigo Paradigm
    example of worst fire storm to learn from
  44. PRC code 4291
    • Space by clearance standards
    • 30-100 feet
  45. Hottest year ever recorded
    • 2014
    • according to inconvenient truth 2005
  46. Foehn Winds
    gaining heat and going to lower elevation
  47. Inversion layer
    layer that traps heat down
  48. Fire wars
    • Controlled burns that got out of control
    • 1910 fire exclusion 
    • build up of towns
    • Yellowstone burned tones of acres controlled burns gone wild
    • let the fire burn
  49. Fire complex
    two or more fires under 1 command post
  50. Flash over
    building a fire with no vents and gases are building and lowering as room fills. Once reach pilot light (water heater) whole room catches and flashes over
  51. Ed Pulaksi
    • Chief of crew fighting Big Blowup fire
    • saved crew by hiding them in a mine shaft
  52. Hazard Areas of SLO
    • Poly Canyon
    • Cuesta Grade
    • Bishops Peak
Card Set:
Fire Final
2015-03-12 06:29:38
NR 308

Fire and Society 308 Final
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