Pathophysiology Exam #3
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Pathophysiology Exam #3
Fluid and Electrolyte Imblanace, Acid-Base Imbalance, Respiratory Disorders
What is the Normal Value for Potassium?
What is the Normal Value for Sodium?
What is the Normal Value for Chloride?
What is the Normal Value for Calcium?
What is the normal value for PaCO
35-45 mm. Hg
What is the normal value for PaO
What is the normal value for bicarbonate?
What is the normal Va/Q ratio?
0.4L air per minute/ 0.5L blood per minute =0.8
What is the normal value for pH?
What is the order of the RAA, ADH mechanism?
ADH-Renin-Angiotensinogen-Agiotension I- Angiotension II- Aldosterone
Cappillary Hydrostatic Pressure does what?
Is the pressue moving fluid through a capillary
Capillary Osmotic pressure does what?
Pushes fluid against hydrostatic pressure causing a slight accumulation of fluid in the tissues.
Cause of Increased Sodium (Na)
Excess Sodium intake
Imipaired thirst sensation
Signs and Symptoms of Increase Sodium (Na)
What are the causes of decreased Sodium (Na)
Signs and Symptoms of Decreased Sodium (Na)
Causes of increased Potassium (K)
Lysis of large number of cells
Signs and Symptoms of increased Potassium (K)
Decreased membrane potential
Increased Neuromuscular Irritability
Tingling of lips and fingers
Causes of Decreased Potassium (K)
Signs and Symptoms of decreased Potassium (K)
Increased membrane potential
Causes of increased Calcium (Ca)
Excessive Vitamin D Ingestion
Signs and symptoms of incresed Calcium (Ca)
Depressed Neuromuscular excitibility
Kidney Srone Formation
Causes of Decreased Calcium (Ca)
Decreased Vitamin D ingestion
Signs and Symptoms of Decreased Calicum (Ca)
Excessive neuromuscular excitability
What are the causes of Edema?
Increasesd Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure
Right Ventricular Failure
Left Ventricular Failure
Local Venous Obstruction
Decreased Capillary Osmotic Pressure
Increased Capillary Permeabiliry
Edema Signs Caused by Right Heart Failure
Edema carused by Left Heart Failure
What causes Acute Renal Failure (ARF)?
Sudden Supression of Kidney function
What are the types of Acute Renal Failure?
What are the stages of Acute Renal Failure (ARF)
What are the signs of ARF?
What are the signs of recovery in ARF?
Return of concentrating ability of the kidney
Decrased urine output
The accumulation of nitrogenous waste in the blood
increased urine output
Urination of plasma
What is an Metabolic Acidosis?
There is a change is amount of fixed acids
pH decreases, bicarbionate decreases
What is Metabolic Alkalosis?
The pH increases
The bicarbonate increase
What is respiratory acidosis?
Excessive retention of CO
What is Respiratory alkalosis?
Excessive excretion of CO
What is the cause of metabolic acidossi?
The loss of bicarbonate or the accumulation of non-volatile acid due to
What are the Signs and symptoms of metabolic acidosis?
Deep rapid respiration
Decreased LOC, disorientation, coma
Dimished Cardiac Output
How does the body compensate for Metabolic Acadosis?
Increased respiratory rate and depth
What causes Respiratory Acidosis?
Accumulation of carbonic acid due to CO
retention caused by
Obstructive lung diseases
Depression of CNS respiratory center
What are the signs and symptoms of Respiratory Acidosis?
Diminished Cardiac Output
Reduced Cardiac Output
What does the body do to compensate for Respiratory Acidosis?
: H+ excretion; bicarbonate retention
What are the causes of Metabolic Alkalosis?
Excess bicarbonate of loss of non-volatile acid caused by
Diuretics that cause H+ excretion, Bicarbonate retention
Ingestion of Alkali
What are the Signs and symptoms of Metabolic Alkalosis?
What does the body do to compensate for Metabolic Alkalosis?
Decreased Respiratory rate and depth
What is the cause of Respiratory Alkalosis?
Loss of carboinic acid because of hyperventilation due to
: Stroke, Tumors, Trauma, Meningitis
What are the signs and symptoms of respiratory alkalosis?
How does the body try and compensate for Respiratory Alkalosis?
: H+ retention, bicarbonate excretion
What is the normal Ventilaion-Perfusion Ratio?
4L air/5L blood/min=0.8
What is Ventilation Perfusion Mismatch?
The ratio of normal Ventilation Perfusino is skewed.
Obstuction does what to the ventialtion perfusion ratio?
What is anemic-anemia?
Anemia resulting from the failure of oxyger delivery to the tissues
What is histoxia?
Decreased uptake by the tissues
What are the areas of respiratroy control?
What is the function of central chemoreceptors?
Respond to changes in the pH of cerebrospinal fluid
What is the function of peripheral chemoreceptrors?
Respond to increases in CO
or H+ and if the arterial O
What is Acute Respiratory Failure?
The sudden failure of the respiratory system
What are the causes of Acute Repiratory Failure?
Severe chest wall/diagphragm trauma-pneumothorax
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Acute Respiratory Failure?
< 66 mm Hg
> 50 mm Hg
What are the effects of acute respiratory failure?
Compensatory Hypertension then Hypotension
What are the causes of Adult Respirattory distress syndrome?
What are the signs and symptoms of Adult Respiratroy Distress Syndrome?
Widespread Alveolar Infiltrate
What are the effects of Adult Respirtory Distress Syndrome?
Increased vasculature and alveolar permeablility
Decreased Lung Compliance
Decreased Gas Exchange
Protein Rich Edema
What is the cause of Pulmonary Hypertension?
Decreased area for gas exchange and increased resistance
What are the Effects and Signs and Symptosms of Pulmonary Hypertension?
"Blue Bloater"- Cyanotic
What is the main cause of Lung Cancer?
What are the signs and symptoms of Lung Cancer?
What are the effects of Lung Cancer?
Acute Respiratory Failure
What are the causes of Emphysema?
Increased Protelytic Enzymes and Decreased alpha1 Antitrypsin
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Emphysema?
Use of acessory breathing muscles- "barrel Chest"
What are the effects of Emphysema?
Decreased Alveolar area for gas exchange
What are the causes of Bronchitis?
What are the signs and symptoms of bronchitits?
Excess Mucous Production
What are the effects of bronchitis?
Right Sided CHF
What condition results in regractory Hypoxia?
ARDS and IRDS
Due to damage to the respiratory membrane and progressive pulmonary edema
What are the causes of Pnumonia?
What are the signs and symptoms of Pnumonia?
Rales and Sputum
What are the effects of pnumonia?
Exudate in Alveolar Spaces
What are the causes of tuberculosis?
Aspiration or Ingestion
What are the Signs and Symptoms of inflammatory response?
Chest Radiograph- Ghon Tubercles
What are the effects of Tuberculosis?
Low grade fever
Productive COugh with hemoptysis
What are the intristic causes of asthma?
What are the extrinsic causes of Asthma?
What are the signs and symptoms of asthma?
What are the effects of Asthma?
Acute, reversible episodes of airway obstruction
excessive mucus production
bronchiolar mucosal edema