Pathophysiology Exam #3

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janae0711
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29823
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Pathophysiology Exam #3
Updated:
2010-08-14 17:18:48
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Fuid Electrolyte
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Fluid and Electrolyte Imblanace, Acid-Base Imbalance, Respiratory Disorders
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  1. What is the Normal Value for Potassium?
    3.5-5.0 mEq/L
  2. What is the Normal Value for Sodium?
    136-140 mEq/L
  3. What is the Normal Value for Chloride?
    90-1110 mEq/L
  4. What is the Normal Value for Calcium?
    10mg/DL
  5. What is the normal value for PaCO2 ?
    35-45 mm. Hg
  6. What is the normal value for PaO2 ?
    75-100 mm.Hg
  7. What is the normal value for bicarbonate?
    22-26 mEq/L
  8. What is the normal Va/Q ratio?
    0.4L air per minute/ 0.5L blood per minute =0.8
  9. What is the normal value for pH?
    7.35-7.45
  10. What is the order of the RAA, ADH mechanism?
    ADH-Renin-Angiotensinogen-Agiotension I- Angiotension II- Aldosterone
  11. Cappillary Hydrostatic Pressure does what?
    Is the pressue moving fluid through a capillary
  12. Capillary Osmotic pressure does what?
    Pushes fluid against hydrostatic pressure causing a slight accumulation of fluid in the tissues.
  13. Cause of Increased Sodium (Na)
    • Excess Sodium intake
    • Imipaired thirst sensation
    • Dysphagia
    • Profuse Sweating
    • Diabetes Insipidus
  14. Signs and Symptoms of Increase Sodium (Na)
    • Thirst
    • Cell Shrinking
    • Cns Irritability
    • Confusion
    • Seizures
    • Coma
    • Tachycardia
    • Oliguria
    • Anuria
  15. What are the causes of decreased Sodium (Na)
    • Aldosterone deficiency
    • Renal Failure
    • CHF
    • SIADH
  16. Signs and Symptoms of Decreased Sodium (Na)
    • Cellular Swelling
    • CNS depression
    • Lethargy
    • Apathy
    • Stupor
    • Diminished reflexes
    • Muscle Cramps
    • Anorexia
    • Coma
  17. Causes of increased Potassium (K)
    • Insulin deficiency
    • Lysis of large number of cells
    • aldosterone deficiency
    • Metabloic acidosis
    • Kidney disease
  18. Signs and Symptoms of increased Potassium (K)
    • Decreased membrane potential
    • Increased Neuromuscular Irritability
    • Tingling of lips and fingers
    • Muscle weakness
    • Paralysis
    • Cardiac Arrhythmias
    • V-Fib
    • Asystole
  19. Causes of Decreased Potassium (K)
    • Dietary Deficiency
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrea
    • Laxative abuse
    • Insulin
    • Epinephrine
    • Metabolic Alkalosis
  20. Signs and Symptoms of decreased Potassium (K)
    • Increased membrane potential
    • Muscle Weakness
    • Paralysis
    • Cardiac Arrhythmia
    • CNS depression
    • Coma
  21. Causes of increased Calcium (Ca)
    • Hyperparathyrodism
    • Bone Breakdown
    • Excessive Vitamin D Ingestion
  22. Signs and symptoms of incresed Calcium (Ca)
    • Depressed Neuromuscular excitibility
    • Depression
    • Muscle weakness
    • Constipation
    • Anorexia
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Kidney Srone Formation
    • Osteopenia
    • Bone fractures
    • Bone Deformaties
  23. Causes of Decreased Calcium (Ca)
    • Decreased Vitamin D ingestion
    • Blood Transfusions
    • Hyperparathyroidism
    • Kidney Disease
  24. Signs and Symptoms of Decreased Calicum (Ca)
    • Excessive neuromuscular excitability
    • Muscle Spasms
    • Cardiac Arrhythmias
    • Seizures
  25. What are the causes of Edema?
    • Increasesd Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure
    • Right Ventricular Failure
    • Left Ventricular Failure
    • Sodium-Water Excess
    • Local Venous Obstruction
    • Hepatic Obstruction
    • Decreased Capillary Osmotic Pressure
    • Increased Capillary Permeabiliry
    • Lymphatic Obstruction
  26. Edema Signs Caused by Right Heart Failure
    Pedal Edema
  27. Edema carused by Left Heart Failure
    Pulomary Edema
  28. What causes Acute Renal Failure (ARF)?
    Sudden Supression of Kidney function
  29. What are the types of Acute Renal Failure?
    • Prerenal
    • Intrarenal
    • Postrenal Obstructive
  30. What are the stages of Acute Renal Failure (ARF)
    • Initiation
    • Maintenance
  31. What are the signs of ARF?
    • Oliguria
    • Hyponatremia
    • Hyperkalemia
    • Acidosis
    • Azotemia
    • Anemia
  32. What are the signs of recovery in ARF?
    • Polyuria
    • Return of concentrating ability of the kidney
  33. Oliguria
    Decrased urine output
  34. Azotemia
    The accumulation of nitrogenous waste in the blood
  35. Polyuria
    increased urine output
  36. Isosthenuria
    Urination of plasma
  37. What is an Metabolic Acidosis?
    • There is a change is amount of fixed acids
    • pH decreases, bicarbionate decreases
  38. What is Metabolic Alkalosis?
    • The pH increases
    • The bicarbonate increase
  39. What is respiratory acidosis?
    Excessive retention of CO2
  40. What is Respiratory alkalosis?
    Excessive excretion of CO2
  41. What is the cause of metabolic acidossi?
    The loss of bicarbonate or the accumulation of non-volatile acid due to

    • Renal failure
    • Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    • Decompensated Shock
    • Diarrhea
    • Bilious Vomiting
    • Poisoning
    • Starvation
  42. What are the Signs and symptoms of metabolic acidosis?
    • Deep rapid respiration
    • Acetone Breath
    • Decreased LOC, disorientation, coma
    • Ventricular Arrhythmias
    • Dimished Cardiac Output
  43. How does the body compensate for Metabolic Acadosis?
    • Buffering
    • Increased respiratory rate and depth
  44. What causes Respiratory Acidosis?
    • Accumulation of carbonic acid due to CO2 retention caused by
    • Obstructive lung diseases
    • Neuromuscular weakness
    • Depression of CNS respiratory center
  45. What are the signs and symptoms of Respiratory Acidosis?
    • Decreased LOC
    • Disorientation
    • Coma
    • Ventricular Arrhythmias
    • Diminished Cardiac Output
    • Pulmonary Hypertension
    • Reduced Cardiac Output
  46. What does the body do to compensate for Respiratory Acidosis?
    • Buffering
    • Renal: H+ excretion; bicarbonate retention
  47. What are the causes of Metabolic Alkalosis?
    • Excess bicarbonate of loss of non-volatile acid caused by
    • Gastric vomiting
    • Nasogastric Suctioning
    • Diuretics that cause H+ excretion, Bicarbonate retention
    • Ingestion of Alkali
  48. What are the Signs and symptoms of Metabolic Alkalosis?
    • Apathy
    • Mental Confusion
    • Dizziness
    • Parasthesias
    • Shallow Breating
    • Muscle Spasm
  49. What does the body do to compensate for Metabolic Alkalosis?
    • Buffering
    • Decreased Respiratory rate and depth
  50. What is the cause of Respiratory Alkalosis?
    • Loss of carboinic acid because of hyperventilation due to
    • Anxiety
    • Hypoxia
    • CNS disorders: Stroke, Tumors, Trauma, Meningitis
    • Fever
    • Pregnancy
  51. What are the signs and symptoms of respiratory alkalosis?
    • Anxiety
    • Mental confusion
    • Dizziness
    • Parasthesias
    • Decreased LOC
    • Coma
    • Neuromuscular Tetany
  52. How does the body try and compensate for Respiratory Alkalosis?
    • Buffering
    • Renal: H+ retention, bicarbonate excretion
  53. What is the normal Ventilaion-Perfusion Ratio?
    4L air/5L blood/min=0.8
  54. What is Ventilation Perfusion Mismatch?
    The ratio of normal Ventilation Perfusino is skewed.
  55. Obstuction does what to the ventialtion perfusion ratio?
    Decreases ventialion
  56. What is anemic-anemia?
    Anemia resulting from the failure of oxyger delivery to the tissues
  57. What is histoxia?
    Decreased uptake by the tissues
  58. What are the areas of respiratroy control?
    • Medulla
    • Pons
    • Central Chemoreceptors
    • Peripheral Chemoreceptors
  59. What is the function of central chemoreceptors?
    Respond to changes in the pH of cerebrospinal fluid
  60. What is the function of peripheral chemoreceptrors?
    Respond to increases in CO2 or H+ and if the arterial O2 saturation falls.
  61. What is Acute Respiratory Failure?
    The sudden failure of the respiratory system
  62. What are the causes of Acute Repiratory Failure?
    • CNS depression
    • Neuromuscular disease
    • Severe chest wall/diagphragm trauma-pneumothorax
    • Airway obstruction
    • Lung Disease
    • Vascular Disease
  63. What are the Signs and Symptoms of Acute Respiratory Failure?
    • PaO2 < 66 mm Hg
    • PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg
  64. What are the effects of acute respiratory failure?
    • Confusion
    • Tremors
    • Compensatory Hypertension then Hypotension
    • Tachycardia
    • Decreased LOC
  65. What are the causes of Adult Respirattory distress syndrome?
    • Hypovolemic Shock
    • Trauma
    • Embolism
    • Aspiration
    • Drug Overdose
    • Inhaled Toxins
    • Radiation
    • Hematologic Disorders
    • Infection
    • Burns
    • Cancer
    • Anaphylaxis
    • Eclampsia
    • Decreased Surfactant
  66. What are the signs and symptoms of Adult Respiratroy Distress Syndrome?
    • Refractory Hypoxia
    • Widespread Alveolar Infiltrate
    • Dyspnea
  67. What are the effects of Adult Respirtory Distress Syndrome?
    • Increased vasculature and alveolar permeablility
    • Decreased Lung Compliance
    • Decreased Gas Exchange
    • Protein Rich Edema
    • Obstruction
  68. What is the cause of Pulmonary Hypertension?
    • Decreased area for gas exchange and increased resistance
    • Emphysema
    • Embolism
    • Compensatory Vasoconstriction
    • Heart Defects
  69. What are the Effects and Signs and Symptosms of Pulmonary Hypertension?
    • CHF
    • "Blue Bloater"- Cyanotic
    • Ventricular Hypertrophy
    • Embolism
  70. What is the main cause of Lung Cancer?
    Smoking
  71. What are the signs and symptoms of Lung Cancer?
    • Cough
    • Hemoptysis
    • Hoarseness
    • Pleural Effusion
  72. What are the effects of Lung Cancer?
    Acute Respiratory Failure
  73. What are the causes of Emphysema?
    • Increased Protelytic Enzymes and Decreased alpha1 Antitrypsin
    • Smoking
    • Chronic Bronchitis
  74. What are the Signs and Symptoms of Emphysema?
    • Weight loss
    • Use of acessory breathing muscles- "barrel Chest"
    • Cyanosis
  75. What are the effects of Emphysema?
    • Decreased Alveolar area for gas exchange
    • Bronchiolar Collapse
  76. What are the causes of Bronchitis?
    • Acute- infection
    • Chronic- smoking
  77. What are the signs and symptoms of bronchitits?
    • Coughing
    • Excess Mucous Production
    • Scarring
    • Airway Obstruction
    • Hypoxia
    • Hypercapnia
    • Vasoconstriction
  78. What are the effects of bronchitis?
    • Pulmonary Hypertension
    • Right Sided CHF
  79. What condition results in regractory Hypoxia?
    • ARDS and IRDS
    • Due to damage to the respiratory membrane and progressive pulmonary edema
  80. What are the causes of Pnumonia?
    • Aspiration
    • Aerosol
    • Systemic
  81. What are the signs and symptoms of Pnumonia?
    • Rales and Sputum
    • Inflammatory response
  82. What are the effects of pnumonia?
    • Va/Q mismatch
    • Exudate in Alveolar Spaces
  83. What are the causes of tuberculosis?
    • Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
    • Aspiration or Ingestion
  84. What are the Signs and Symptoms of inflammatory response?
    • Inflammatory Response
    • Skin Test
    • Chest Radiograph- Ghon Tubercles
  85. What are the effects of Tuberculosis?
    • Low grade fever
    • Productive COugh with hemoptysis
    • Anorexia
    • Lethargy
    • Night Sweats
    • Dyspnea
    • Chest pain
  86. What are the intristic causes of asthma?
    • Exercise
    • Stress
    • Irritants
    • Drugs
  87. What are the extrinsic causes of Asthma?
    Allergens
  88. What are the signs and symptoms of asthma?
    • Wheezing
    • Dyspnea
    • Hyperventilation
    • Productive Cough
  89. What are the effects of Asthma?
    • Acute, reversible episodes of airway obstruction
    • bronchospasm
    • excessive mucus production
    • bronchiolar mucosal edema

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