Fat and Protein Metabolism

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  1. What are the 3 main sources of nutrients?
    Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Fats
  2. Fatty acid oxidation and mobilization is regulated where?
    Adipose Tissue
  3. What enzyme regulates fatty acid oxidation and mobilization?
    Hormone-Sensitive Lipase (LIPE gene)
  4. What promotes the activation of the HSL enzyme?
    • fasting conditions, minimal
    • amounts of insulin in the blood, and the presence of glucagon and epinephrine
  5. What does active HSL enzyme do to triglycerides?
    hydrolyzes triglycerides to glycerol and free fatty acids
  6. What carries free fatty acids to tissues where they are oxidized for energy in the mitochondrial matrix?
    serum albumin
  7. What happens to the resulting glycerol from HSL enzyme hydolysis of triglycerides?
    Glycerol is carried to the liver for gluconeogenesis (glucose synthesis)
  8. What is the pathway shown below?Image Upload
    Beta Oxidation of Fatty Acids Pathway
  9. True or False: The liver can metabolize ketone bodies.
  10. Why can't the liver metabolize ketone bodies?
    Because it lacks the enzyme succinyl-CoA:acetoacetate-CoA transferase to convert acetoacetate to acetyl-CoA
  11. What is the caloric value of fat?
    Caloric value of fat = 9kcal/g ,HIGH ENERGY DENSITY
  12. What is the caloric value of protein and carbohydrates?
    Caloric value of protein and carbohydrates = 4kcal/g
  13. Each mole of palmitate oxidized produces
    a net ___ moles of ATP from NADH, FADH2, and acetyl-CoA
  14. What provides more than half of the oxidative energy requirement of the liver, kidneys, heart, and resting skeletal?
    fatty acid oxidation
  15. As one fatty acid is oxidized ___ pairs of electrons are passed to the reduced energy carriers NADH and FADH2 that act as ____ used in the electron transport chain/oxidative phosphorylation

    electron donors
  16. The following are what kind of amino acids?

    glycine, serine, valine, histidine, arginine, cysteine, proline, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, asparagine, methionine
    Glucogenic Amino Acids
  17. How many ketogenic amino acids are there?
    Only 2
  18. Name the ketogenic amino acids.
    Leucine and lysine
  19. The transamination of amino acids results in ______   ______ that provide substrates for gluconeogenesis or ketone body production.
    Carbon Skeletons
  20. ____  Amino Acids are converted
    to either acetyl-CoA or acetoacetyl-CoA.
  21. _______ Amino Acids are converted
    to pyruvate or citric acid cycle intermediates
  22. What are the 3 General States of Metabolism?
    1  Well Fed State (Anabolic Metabolism)

    2  Fasting State (Catabolic Metabolism)

    3  Starvation State (Catabolic Metabolism)
  23. What are the three major tissues of concern during the metabolic states?
    The liver, adipose tissue, muscle, and the brain
  24. What are the Major Hormones Responsible for Regulating Metabolism?


    Epinephrine (Adrenaline)

  25. Name a hormone for feasting.
  26. Name a hormone for fasting.
  27. Name a hormone for fleeing or fighting.
    Epinephrine (Adrenaline)
  28. True or False: The main goal of insulin is to lower blood glucose.
  29. What is the overall effect of insulin?
    to promote fuel storage, activation of energystoring enzymes, and inactivation of energy mobilizing enzymes
  30. True or False: Weight loss leads to the down-regulation of insulin receptor synthesis.

    Leads to upregulation
  31. Insulin primarily does what to enzymes?
    dephosphorylates enzymes
  32. True or False: The main goal of glucagon is to increase blood glucose.
  33. The extraction of energy from stored glucose is known as _____ .
  34. Glucose synthesis is known as ____ .
  35. True or False: Glucagon simultaneously stimulates some enzymes and inhibits others.
  36. Glucagon inhibits glycogen synthase from ____  _____ .
    storing glycogenlucagon
  37. Glucagon activates _____  _____  _____ in adipose to mobilize fats for energy.
    Hormone Sensitive Lipase
  38. True or False: Glucagon has no effect in the liver or muscles.

    Glucagon has an effect in the liver but none in the muscles or adipose tissue
  39. Secretion of epinephrine from the ______ of the adrenal gland is in response to stress, prolonged exercise, hypoglycemia, or trauma.
  40. Glucocorticoids are produced by ______  ______  to help tissues respond to long term metabolic stress.
    adrenal glands
  41. True or False: Glucocorticoids are considered anti-insulin.
  42. Fasting State begins ____ hours after last meal and can last 4 to 5 days.
Card Set:
Fat and Protein Metabolism
2015-03-12 13:12:06
BME Exam3

Exam 3 Prep
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