Fat and Protein Metabolism
Card Set Information
Fat and Protein Metabolism
Exam 3 Prep
What are the 3 main sources of nutrients?
Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Fats
Fatty acid oxidation and mobilization is regulated where?
What enzyme regulates fatty acid oxidation and mobilization?
ipase (LIPE gene)
What promotes the activation of the HSL enzyme?
fasting conditions, minimal
amounts of insulin in the blood, and the presence of glucagon and epinephrine
What does active HSL enzyme do to triglycerides?
hydrolyzes triglycerides to glycerol and free fatty acids
What carries free fatty acids to tissues where they are oxidized for energy in the mitochondrial matrix?
What happens to the resulting glycerol from HSL enzyme hydolysis of triglycerides?
Glycerol is carried to the liver for gluconeogenesis (glucose synthesis)
What is the pathway shown below?
Beta Oxidation of Fatty Acids Pathway
True or False: The liver can metabolize ketone bodies.
Why can't the liver metabolize ketone bodies?
Because it lacks the enzyme succinyl-CoA:acetoacetate-CoA transferase to convert acetoacetate to acetyl-CoA
What is the caloric value of fat?
Caloric value of fat = 9kcal/g ,HIGH ENERGY DENSITY
What is the caloric value of protein and carbohydrates?
Caloric value of protein and carbohydrates = 4kcal/g
Each mole of palmitate oxidized produces
a net ___ moles of ATP from NADH, FADH2, and acetyl-CoA
What provides more than half of the oxidative energy requirement of the liver, kidneys, heart, and resting skeletal?
fatty acid oxidation
As one fatty acid is oxidized ___ pairs of electrons are passed to the reduced energy carriers NADH and FADH2 that act as ____ used in the electron transport chain/oxidative phosphorylation
The following are what kind of amino acids?
glycine, serine, valine, histidine, arginine, cysteine, proline, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, asparagine, methionine
Glucogenic Amino Acids
How many ketogenic amino acids are there?
Name the ketogenic amino acids.
Leucine and lysine
The transamination of amino acids results in ______ ______ that provide substrates for gluconeogenesis or ketone body production.
____ Amino Acids are converted
to either acetyl-CoA or acetoacetyl-CoA.
_______ Amino Acids are converted
to pyruvate or citric acid cycle intermediates
What are the 3 General States of Metabolism?
1 Well Fed State (Anabolic Metabolism)
2 Fasting State (Catabolic Metabolism)
3 Starvation State (Catabolic Metabolism)
What are the three major tissues of concern during the metabolic states?
The liver, adipose tissue, muscle, and the brain
What are the Major Hormones Responsible for Regulating Metabolism?
Name a hormone for feasting.
Name a hormone for fasting.
Name a hormone for fleeing or fighting.
True or False: The main goal of insulin is to lower blood glucose.
What is the overall effect of insulin?
promote fuel storage
, activation of energystoring enzymes, and inactivation of energy mobilizing enzymes
True or False: Weight loss leads to the down-regulation of insulin receptor synthesis.
Leads to upregulation
Insulin primarily does what to enzymes?
True or False: The main goal of glucagon is to increase blood glucose.
The extraction of energy from stored glucose is known as _____ .
Glucose synthesis is known as ____ .
True or False: Glucagon simultaneously stimulates some enzymes and inhibits others.
Glucagon inhibits glycogen synthase from ____ _____ .
Glucagon activates _____ _____ _____ in adipose to mobilize fats for energy.
Hormone Sensitive Lipase
True or False: Glucagon has no effect in the liver or muscles.
Glucagon has an effect in the liver but none in the muscles or adipose tissue
Secretion of epinephrine from the ______ of the adrenal gland is in response to stress, prolonged exercise, hypoglycemia, or trauma.
Glucocorticoids are produced by ______ ______ to help tissues respond to long term metabolic stress.
True or False: Glucocorticoids are considered anti-insulin.
Fasting State begins ____ hours after last meal and can last 4 to 5 days.