2.11 Lymphatic and Immune system

Card Set Information

Author:
efrain12
ID:
298264
Filename:
2.11 Lymphatic and Immune system
Updated:
2015-03-13 14:50:11
Tags:
AnP II
Folders:

Description:
Lymphatic and immunity
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user efrain12 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Lymphatic system function (3)
    -restore fluid balance

    -absorbs fats

    -defense system
  2. Lymphatic organs). consist off (4)
    -lymph tissue

    -nodules

    -tonsils

    -nodes
  3. Lymphatic organs) Lymph tissue (2)
    -mucus membrane

    -diffuse throughout
  4. Lymphatic organs) nodules
    -more organized that lymph tissue

    -ex) peyers patches
  5. Lymphatic organs) tonsils (4 types)
    -palatine tonsils

    -pharyngeal tonsils

    -lingual tonsils

    -tubal tonsils
  6. Lymphatic organs) nodes (3 main)
    -inguinal nodes

    -Axillary nodes

    -cervical nodes
  7. Lymphatic organs) what do nodes do?
    • They filter the lymph fluid coming in
    • *more of it comes in to create backup to filter everything slowly
  8. Lymphatic organs) Spleen
    -encapsulated organ
  9. Lymphatic organs) spleen: what its sympathetic tissue called?
    • pulp
    • *white or red pulp
  10. Lymphatic organs) spleen: what's hilum?
    Where vessels enter and exit
  11. Lymphatic organs) spleen: function (2)
    -destroy foreign substances and old RBCs
  12. Lymphatic organs) spleen: what does the white pulp surround?
    The arterials
  13. Lymphatic organs) spleen: what does the red pulp surround?
    veins
  14. Lymphatic organs) thymus: description?
    Bi-lobed gland subdivided into lobule
  15. Lymphatic organs) thymus: cortex involved in
    lymphocyte production
  16. Lymphatic organs) thymus: medulla
    Development of regulatory t-cell maturation
  17. Lymphatic organs) thymus: which 3 glands does it produce that are involved in t-lymphocytes maturation (2)_
    -thymosin

    -thymopoietin
  18. Lymphatic organs) thymus: what does it also do before birth?
    Produces RBCs before birth
  19. Lymphatic organs) lymph vessels: one way vessels
    -open system
  20. Lymphatic organs) lymph vessels: right lymphatic duct drains
    1/4 of the system that the thoracic duct doesn't drain
  21. Lymphatic organs) lymph vessels: thoracic duct dumps into
    • Left subclavian vein
    • *drains 3/.4 of body
  22. Lymphatic organs) lymph vessels: flaplike minivalve
    These extend onto interstitum & collect fluid to enter lymph vessel
  23. Immunity) immune system splits into 2 branches`
    -innate non specific resistance

    -adaptive specific resistance
  24. Immunity) adaptive specific resistance has 2 branches
    • -Humoral immunity
    • *b-cells produce these proteins

    • -cell-mediated immunity
    • *t-cells
  25. Immunity) the immune system uses...
    A combination of cells and activated proteins to isolate, bind with, and destroy harmful foreign substances
  26. Innate Non specific resistance) Mechanical barriers : (5)
    -skin

    -mucus membranes

    -saliva

    -tears

    • -Cilia
    • *respiratory tract
  27. Innate Non specific resistance) what does non-specific refer to?
    each time the body is exposed to a foreign substance it has a general response
  28. Innate Non specific resistance) chemicals: what is their main function?
    It destroys substances
  29. Innate Non specific resistance) chemicals: 6 types of chemicals
    -enzymes

    -acids

    -defensins

    -mucin

    • -chemicals that are secreted during to signal inflammation
    • *histamine etc

    -leukocyte inducing factors
  30. Innate Non specific resistance) chemicals: enzymes
    Lysosomes
  31. Innate Non specific resistance) chemicals: acids
    acids in stomach, vagina, skin
  32. Innate Non specific resistance) chemicals: defensins
    Digest microbial membranes to help prevent colonization of pathogens
  33. Innate Non specific resistance) chemicals: mucin
    Traps substances
  34. Innate Non specific resistance) chemicals: that are secreted to signal inflammatory process (3)(
    histamine

    Prostaglandins

    -leukotrienes
  35. Innate Non specific resistance) chemicals: leukocyte inducing factors
    attract white cells to area of infection/injury
  36. Innate Non specific resistance) Cells: Leukocytes (2)
    -chemotaxis

    -ameboid movement
  37. Innate Non specific resistance) Cells: Leukocytes, what is chemotaxis?
    Refers to chemical attraction of WBCs to area of infection
  38. Innate Non specific resistance) Cells: Ameboid movement
    diapedesis, the way they can move in and out of blood vessel independently
  39. Innate Non specific resistance) Cells: leukocytes, kill by? (2)
    -lysosomal degradation

    -proteasomes
  40. Innate Non specific resistance) Cells: Leukocytes, Neutrophils (2)
    -more abundant than the other WBCS

    • -1st type of leukocyte that enters area
    • *more abundant than any other
  41. Innate Non specific resistance) Cells: leukocytes, neutrophils
    Phagocytic and then die to form pus
  42. Innate Non specific resistance) Cells: leukocytes, macrophage (2)
    -monocyte initially

    -longer lifespan than neutrophils
  43. Innate Non specific resistance) Cells: leukocytes, Basophils release 3 things
    -histamine

    -heparin

    -leukotrienes
  44. Innate Non specific resistance) Cells: leukocytes, Basophils : histamine
    Involved in vasodilator
  45. Innate Non specific resistance) Cells: leukocytes, Basophils: heparin
    Anticoagulant which helps diminish unnecessary blood clots
  46. Innate Non specific resistance) Cells: leukocytes, Basophils : leukotrienes
    Attract other cells to fight
  47. Innate Non specific resistance) Cells: leukocytes, mast cell (2)
    -release a number of inflammatory chemicals

    -reside within tissues so they don't circulate as much
  48. Innate Non specific resistance) Cells: leukocytes, natural killer cells (2)
    -kill tumor and virus cells through chemical lysis

    -not phagocytic
  49. Innate Non specific resistance) Cells: leukocytes, dendritic cells (4)
    Found in skin but also in mucus membranes

    Have long cytoplasmic extensions that allow for easy communication with other cells

    Phagocytic

    -migrate to lymphatic tissue & normal location constantly
  50. Innate Non specific resistance) antimicrobial proteins: Complement , why are they called this?
    They complement other cells that need help or assistance
  51. Innate Non specific resistance) antimicrobial proteins: Complement, consist of how many proteins?
    20 porteins
  52. Innate Non specific resistance) antimicrobial proteins: Interferon, are a
    Family of related proteins
  53. Innate Non specific resistance) antimicrobial proteins: Interferon, respond to
    -general viral infection
  54. Innate Non specific resistance) antimicrobial proteins: Interferon, process (2)
    When virus takes over cell, the infected cell will produce interferon

    Interferon will be secreted to neighboring cells so they can build anti-viral proteins that will block the virus from coming into the cell
  55. Innate Non specific resistance) antimicrobial proteins: Interferon, what is PKR?
    These are the antiviral proteins that are secreted by healthy cell in response of receiving the interferon q
  56. Innate Non specific resistance) Mechanism of action: split into 2 sections
    -vessel permeability

    -attract white cells
  57. Innate Non specific resistance) Mechanism of action: overview
    Kill the organism with phagocytosis and complement assistance
  58. Innate Non specific resistance) Mechanism of action: Although phagocytosis by neutrophils and macrophages remove unwanted microorganisms, complement proteins also
    Assist in this in flmmatory process
  59. Innate Non specific resistance) complement proteins are activated by
    Cell wall/membrane of the micro-organism
  60. Innate Non specific resistance) Mechanism of action: what happens when complement proteins are activated?
    In a cascade of sequential activation steps, several complement proteins group together to form a large proteins called MAC (membrane attack complex)
  61. Innate Non specific resistance) Mechanism of action: complement PROs, what do MACs do?
    -MACs can bind to cell membranes of invading organisms which then create opening in microorganisms membrane
  62. Innate Non specific resistance) Mechanism of action: compelemtn PROs, what does MACs binding and creating an opening in microorganisms membrane allow to happen? (2)
    -lysis of cell of micro organism

    -opsonization (optimizing) for white cells which makes it easier for them to bind with organism and phagocytoze it
  63. Adaptive Specific resistance) Characteristics (3)
    -recognition

    -systematic

    -memory
  64. Adaptive Specific resistance) characteristics: Recognition
    • -ability to recognize & respond to a particular substance
    • *certain PRos will respond to specific antigens
  65. Adaptive Specific resistance) characteristics: systematic
    Can occur all our body rather than just local like non specific
  66. Adaptive Specific resistance) characteristics: memory
    After past exposure, system will recognize & prevent reinvention by same pathogens using manufacture products that will attack the product that came in
  67. Adaptive Specific resistance) antigens
    Are molecules that stimulate the immune system
  68. Adaptive Specific resistance) specific resistance works with
    antigens
  69. Adaptive Specific resistance) Antigens, Haptens
    Small molecules that can become antigenic if linked to bodies of PRO
  70. Adaptive Specific resistance) Antigen types: Foreign, 2 that fall under this category?
    -bacteria

    -viruses
  71. Adaptive Specific resistance) Antigens: proteins on membrane serve as
    Antigens
  72. Adaptive Specific resistance) Antigens: 2 types
    -foreign

    -self
  73. Adaptive Specific resistance) Antigens: self, what's major histocompatibility (MHC) protein?
    Displays worn out pieces of the cell (self proteins) on it so WBCs sense it and ignore it bc its letting all the cells its a healthy one
  74. Adaptive Specific resistance) Antigens: self, what is a self protein? (2)
    Cells constantly degrading parts of body through lysosomes and proteasomes

    Fragments of these degraded parts are placed on MHC and displayed on membrane
  75. Adaptive Specific resistance) Cells & proteins of specific immunity: 2 types of lymphocytes
    -B cells

    -t-cells
  76. Adaptive Specific resistance) Cells & proteins of specific immunity: lymphocytes , produced where?
    Bone marrow
  77. Adaptive Specific resistance) Cells & proteins of specific immunity: lymphocytes, B cells
    Mature in bone
  78. Adaptive Specific resistance) Cells & proteins of specific immunity: lymphocytes, what doe b cells produce?
    antibodies
  79. Adaptive Specific resistance) Cells & proteins of specific immunity: lymphocytes, T cells
    Matured in thymus
  80. Adaptive Specific resistance) Cells & proteins of specific immunity: T cells, 3 types of t cells?
    -Cytotoxic t cells

    -helper t cells

    -regulatory t cell
  81. Adaptive Specific resistance) Cells & proteins of specific immunity: T cells, Cytotoxic cells (4)
    -CD8 cell line

    -main t-cell that kills

    • -attracted to specific antigen, so will only destroy those
    • *mainly virus

    -not phagocytic, kills with preferring chemical
  82. Adaptive Specific resistance) Cells & proteins of specific immunity: T cells, helper t cells (2)
    -CD4

    • -assist in proliferation of B & T cells that are fighting pathogens
    • *makes sure theres enough cells to fight
  83. Adaptive Specific resistance) Cells & proteins of specific immunity: T cells, regulatory t cell (2)
    -dampen immune response

    -help prevent auto-immune diseases from occurring
  84. Adaptive Specific resistance) Cells & proteins of specific immunity: Antigen presenting cells, 3 types
    -macrophages

    -dendritic cells

    -b-lymphocytes
  85. Adaptive Specific resistance) Cells & proteins of specific immunity: Antigen presenting cells, what does this category refer to?
    Role of specific cell and not a type of cell
  86. Adaptive Specific resistance) Cells & proteins of specific immunity: Antigen presenting cells, Display of abnormal protein (2)
    Abnormal pathogen get phagocytosed then gets degraded

    Degraded bits gets displayed on MHC Protein signaling to rest of cells that there is an infection
  87. Adaptive Specific resistance) Cells & proteins of specific immunity: Antigen presenting cells, which 2 of 3 partake in phagocytosis? And what does the one that doesn't phagocytose do? (2)
    Macrophages and dendritic do this

    b lymphocytes help replicate themselves but they do not phagocytose
  88. Adaptive Specific resistance) Cells & proteins of specific immunity: Complement Proteins, are activated here by
    Formation of antigen/antibody complex
  89. Adaptive Specific resistance) Cells & proteins of specific immunity: Complement Proteins, difference between specific and non specific? (1+2)
    Different trigger

    -Non-Specific: any foreign pathogen entering

    Specific: by formation of antigen/antibody complex
  90. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: mechanisms of action, B lymphocyte activation (3)
    1. B cell will have a specific receptor to bind with foreign antigen

    2. B-cells will then start to clone (rapid mitosis)

    3. Results of cloning: plasma cells & memory cells
  91. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: clonal selection B Cell is assisted by
    T- Helper Cells
  92. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Clonal selection B cell, assisted by t-helper cells secrete (2)
    -interleukin-2

    -direct interaction
  93. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Plasma cells produce
    antibodies
  94. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Antibody structure, forms a
    Y
  95. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Antibody structure, 2 regions
    -constant

    -variable
  96. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Antibody structure, what's on the constant region?
    It displays the class it belongs to
  97. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Antibody structure, what's on the variable region?
    antigen binding site which will be specific tot he foreign substance they bind with earlier before clone
  98. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Class of Antibodies (5)
    - IgD

    -IgM

    -IgG

    -IgA

    -IgE
  99. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Class of Antibodies, IgD
    b cell receptor
  100. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Class of Antibodies, IgM
    First Antibody released
  101. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Class of Antibodies, IgG
    Most abundant
  102. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Class of Antibodies, IgA
    mucus
  103. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Class of Antibodies, IgE
    allergy
  104. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: antibody targets and functions (4)
    -capable of binding with foreign pathogen that will neutralize the pathogen

    • -bind to one another which causes agglutination
    • *clumps of masked pathogens

    • -big clump of agglutinated neutralized pathogens will not move anymore so it makes it easy to be phagocytozed
    • *A.A sacrifice themselves

    -fix & activate complement PROs
  105. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Immunological memory, where does it come from
    ?
    Memory cells
  106. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Immunological memory, what happens when memory cells are activated?
    They are ready to activate & produce anitbodies
  107. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Immunological memory, Primary immune response (2)
    -first exposure

    -3-6 days to activate
  108. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Immunological memory, Secondary immune response (2)
    Memory cells activated

    Usually no infection occurs
  109. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: active and passive Humoral immunity , active (2)
    Memory cells from previous infection

    Vaccines, bc they receive inactive antigens to create memory cells
  110. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: active and passive humeral immunity, Passium immunity (2)
    -pregnancy

    -gamma globulin infusion
  111. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific pathway, Humoral Immunity: Immunological memory, active and passive humeral immunity, why is it called passive?
    Body did not directly create them, they were given to you through a means
  112. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific resistance, Cell mediated response: 2 things it relies on
    -done by t cell

    -relies on antigen recognition, cloning, & production of memory cells
  113. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific resistance, Cell mediated response: T cell activation (2)
    - t cell binds to antigen presenting cell at MHC of it.

    -antigen presenting cell sprouts co stimulatory molecules that the t cell has a receptor for that will bind there also.
  114. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific resistance, Cell mediated response: what happens after t-cell is activated?
    t-cells proliferate as a clone
  115. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific resistance, Cell mediated response: After cloning, each specific cell will perform their own task, T Helper
    Assist proliferating B,T cells
  116. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific resistance, Cell mediated response: After cloning, each specific cell will perform their own task, T Cytotoxic
    -release performing to enter viral infected or cancer cell to lyse it
  117. Adaptive Specific resistance) Specific resistance, Cell mediated response: After cloning, each specific cell will perform their own task, T regulatory
    • -suppress/prevent excessive response from t-cells
    • *not allowing t Cytotoxic go nuts and destroy everything

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview