# IGCSE Waves

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 Author: SilcoatesScience ID: 298273 Filename: IGCSE Waves Updated: 2015-04-08 10:04:46 Tags: WAves IGCSE Folders: Description: Waves Show Answers:

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1. What are the two main categories of waves?
• transverse
• longitudinal
2. Which type of wave has oscillations perpendicular (at right angles) to the direction of energy transfer?
Transverse ( transverse means across)
3. Which type of wave has oscillations parallel to the direction of energy transfer?
Longitudinal
4. What do waves transfer from one place to another?
Energy
5. Are electromagnetic (EM) waves transverse or longitudinal?
Transverse
6. Are sound waves transverse or longitudinal?
Longitudinal
7. Are mechanical waves transverse or longitudinal?
They can be either
8. Which type of electromagnetic (EM) wave travels the fastest through a vacuum?
All EM waves travel at the same speed in a vacuum
9. Put these EM waves into the correct order (lowest frequency first)
gamma ray, x-ray,radio, infrared, visible, microwave, ultraviolet
• microwave
• infrared
• visible
• ultraviolet
• x-ray
• gamma ray
10. Is the energy of a wave proportional to its wavelength or its frequency
Frequency
11. What name is given to the area in a longitudinal wave where the particles have been moved apart?
Rarefaction
12. What name is given to the area in a longitudinal wave where the particles have been moved closer together?
Compression
13. What are the three wave phenomena?
• reflection
• refraction
• diffraction
14. What size does the gap or obstacle need to be if there is to be an appreciable amount of diffraction?
Similar to the wavelength of the wave
15. Where does refraction occur?
At the boundary (interface) between two materials
16. What is the change of direction of waves at an interface between two materials called?
Refraction
17. What does

represent in the wave equation

The wavelength of the wave
18. Which type of EM wave is used in TV remote controls?
Infrared
19. Which types of communication devices use microwaves?
Mobile telephones and satellite TV
20. When constructing ray diagrams, what is the normal?
• A line perpendicular (at right angles) to the reflecting (or refracting) surface at the point of incidence.
• (It is called a construction line as it is used in determining where to draw rays)
21. What is the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection?
They are always equal
22. What 3 properties do images produced in a plane mirror have?
• virtual (cannot be projected onto a screen)
• upright
• laterally inverted (back to front horizontally)
23. What wave property does the pitch of sound relate to?
Frequency
24. What wave property does the loudness of sound relate to?
Amplitude
25. What is the focal length of a converging lens?
• The distance from the centre of the lens to the point at which parallel rays are brought to a focus.
26. What shape is a diverging lens?
concave
27. Do converging lenses bring light rays together or move them apart?
Bring them together
28. What is meant by the critical angle of a material?
The mininum angle of incidence at which Total Internal Reflection (TIR) happens.
29. What is the difference between a real and a virtual image?
Real images can be projected onto a screen. (Light rays converge to a point for real images)

Virtual images cannot be projected onto a screen. (Light rays appear to come from a virtual image but they do not actually intersect each other)
30. What 3 things define an image?
• Size (magnified or diminished),
• orientation (upright or inverted),
• type (real or virtual)
31. What property of a material is defined by
The refractive index
32. What shape is a converging lens?
Convex
33. Do lenses use refraction or reflection?
Refraction
34. What are echoes?
Reflected sounds

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