Pharmaceutics II (Exam II Material) Capsules
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Dosage from in which unit doses of powder, semisolids or liquid drugs are enclosed within either a hard or soft envelop, or shell.
What is a capsule made of?
A capsule is made of gelatin
What are two types of capsules?
Which is rapid release; which is standard or delayed?
Hard capsule: rapid release
Soft capsaule: Standard or delayed
How many capsule sizes are available?
The capacity of each capsule size varies according to the _____ and apparent _____.
combination of drugs; densities
proper capsule size choice is made bad on the _____ of the fill material.
Which capsule size can hold the most?
000 can hold a volume of 1.37mL
How is bulk density determined?
by adding a known weight of powder mix to a 100mL graduated cylinder and measuring the volume.
ex. if 75g of powder occupies 100mL volume, then the bulk capacity is 75g/100mL which equals 0.75g/mL
What is tapped density?
Same method as the bulk density but the graduated cylinder is tapped on a padded surface 100-200 times to settle the powder. This method allows for the powder to occupy less space or add more powder to a given volume.
What is % compressibility?
% compressibility is determined by subtracting the ratio of the bulk capacity divided by the tapped density from 1 and multiplying by 100.
ex. 1-(0.75/0.88) x 100 = 14.8%)
What is the rule of seven?
Convert the powder weight per capsule to grains (1 grain = 0.065g)
subtract the number of grains from 7
match the result with a list of capsule sizes per predetermined factor
ex. if you're result is a factor of -1 or 0, your capsule size is 0. If it is -2, your capsule size is 00... -3 is 000.
What are two ways to prepare a capsule (encapsulation process)?
individual hand filling
capsule machine filling
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using an encapsulating machine?
Advantages: filling many capsules in a timely manner
Disadvantages: capsules in the middle tend to get packed with more powder than along the periphery
What do you check for in the final process of capsule inspection?
- 1. uniformity
- 2. extent of fill
- 3. locked
During the final process, how do you clean a capsule?
1. roll the capsule between folds of a towel
2. immerse in a container containing sodium bicarbonate, sugar, or sodium chloride and gently roll; followed by draining into a mesh sieve.
What are the advantages of capsules?
masks the unpleasant taste, aroma, or appearance of a drug
allows powders to be dispersed in an uncompressed form, allowing for quicker dissolution and absorption of the drug
offers versatility to prepare any dose desired for a variety of administration routes
easier to swallow than tablets for some people
can be made to alter the release rate of the drug
What are the disadvantages of capsules?
can be easily tampered with
can be subject to the effect of relative humidity and to microbial contamination
What are physiochemical considerations/modifications of using capsules?
- 1. incompatibilites
- 2. capsules within capsules
- 3. tablets within capsule
- 4. altered release: rapid, slow, delayed (coated to delay)
What are some additional considerations when making capsules?
- 1. moisture and humidity
- -high humidity will cause capsules to become malformed (although, low humidity will make them dry and brittle)
- 2. flowability
- -magnesium stearate (<1%) when added to powders, increases its flowability, making filling capsules easier (however, magnesium stearate is hydrophobic, and may interfere with dissolution)
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