MICROBIOLOGY PHARMACOLOGY1

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rere_girl4ever
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298291
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MICROBIOLOGY PHARMACOLOGY1
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2015-03-13 13:25:14
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MICROBIOLOGY PHARMACOLOGY
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MICROBIOLOGY PHARMACOLOGY1
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MICROBIOLOGY PHARMACOLOOGY1
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  1. How do we treat tetanus?
    • Antitoxin +/- vaccine booster 
    • Diazepam (for muscle spasm)
  2. How do we treat infection with Clostridium botulinum?
    Antitoxin
  3. Which drugs cause pseudomembraneous colitis?
    Clindamycin or ampicillin
  4. How can we treat pseudomembtaneous colitis caused by C.difficile?
    Metronidazole or vancomycin
  5. How do we teat recurrent cases of pseudomembraneous colitis caused by C.difficile?
    • Repeat regimen (metronidazole/ vancomycin)
    • Fidaxomicin
    • Fecal microbiota transplant
  6. How do we treat actinomyces infection?
    Penicillin
  7. How do we treat nocardia infection?
    Sulfonamides
  8. How can we prevent infection with Mycobacterium avium especially when CD4+ count < 50 cells/mm3?
    Azithromycin
  9. What is this form of leprosy and how do we treat?
    Tuberculoid leprosy- hairless skin plaques, ⇧Th1 type immune response

    Tx: Dapsone and rifampin
  10. What is this form of leprosy and how do we treat?
    Lepromatous leprosy- leonine (lion-like ) facies, ⇧Th2 response

    Tx: Clofazimine
  11. How do we treat gonococcal infections?
    Cefriaxone + (Azithromycin or doxycycline) for possible chlamydia coinfection
  12. How do we treat meningitis caused by Neisseria?
    Ceftriaxone or Penicillin G
  13. How do we treat mucosal infections of H.influenzae?
    Amoxicillin +/- Clavulanate
  14. How do we treat meningitis caused by H.influenzae?
    Ceftriaxone
  15. Which drug can be used for prophylaxis of infection with H.influenzae for persons in close contact?
    Rifampin
  16. How do we treat infection with salmonella typhi?
    Ceftriaxone or Fluoroquinolone
  17. How do we treat infection with Helicobacter pylori?
    • 1. Proton pump inhibitor -prazole
    • 2. Clarithromycin
    • 3. Amoxicillin (or metronidazole if penicillin allergy)
  18. How do we treat Lyme disease?
    Doxycycline, Ceftriaxone
  19. How do we treat infection with Gardnerella vaginalis?
    Metronidazole or clindamycin
  20. How do we treat infection with Chlamydia?
    • Azithromycin (favored because of one time treatment)
    • Doxycyline
    • NOTE: The chlamydial cell wall lacks classic peptidoglycan (due to reduced muramic acid) so do not give Penicillins or Cephalosporins
  21. How do we treat infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae?
    • Macrolide- Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Erythromycin
    • Doxycycline
    • Fluoroquinolone
    • NOTE: Do not give penicillins because they have no cell wall.
  22. How do we treat infection with Legionella pneumophilia?
    • Macrolide- Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Erythromycin or Quinolone
  23. How do we treat infection with Mucor and Rhizopus?
    • Surgical debridement
    • Amphotericin B
  24. When do we start prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirvorecii? Which drugs are used?
    • When CD4+ count drops to <200 cells/mm3 in HIV patients.
    • Dapsone
    • Atovaquone
  25. How do we treat infection with Pneumocystis jirvorecii?
    • Trimethoprim- Sulfamethoxazole
    • Pentamidine
  26. How do we treat infection with Sporothrix schenckii?
    Itraconazole or potassium iodide
  27. How do we treat infection with Giardia lamblia?
    Metronidazole
  28. How do we treat infection with Entamoeba histolytica?
    Metronidazole
  29. How to we treat asymptomatic cyst passers of Entamoeba histolytica?
    Iodoquinol
  30. How do we treat infection with Cryptosporidium in immunocompetent hosts?
    Nitazoxanide
  31. How do we treat infection with Toxoplasma gondii?
    Sulfadiazine + Pyrimethamine
  32. How do we treat infection with Naegleria fowleri?
    Amphotericin B has been effective for a few survivors.
  33. How do we treat infection with Trypanosoma brucei?
    • African sleeping sickness
    • Suramin- for blood borne disease
    • Melarsoprol- for CNS penetration
  34. This drug blocks Plasmodium heme synthesis?
    Chloroquine
  35. What is the MOA and use of Chloroquine?
    • MOA: Blocks plasmodium heme synsthesis
    • USE: Malaria caused by Plasmodium species
  36. How do we treat malaria that is resistant to Chloroquine therapy?
    Mefloquine or Atovaquone/ Proguanil
  37. How do we treat life threatening malaria?
    Use IV Quinidine or Artesunate (test for G6PD deficiency)
  38. This drug is added in the treatment of malaria by P.vivax and P.ovale to completely eradicate infections and PREVENT RELAPSE.
    Primaquine
  39. How do we treat infection with Babesia?
    Atovaquone + Azithromycin
  40. How do we treat infection with Trypanosoma cruzi?
    Benznidazole or Nifurtimox
  41. How do we treat infection with Leishmania donovani?
    • Amphotericin B 
    • Sodium stibogluconate
  42. How do we treat infection with Trichomonas vaginalis?
    Metronidazole (for patient and partner- prophylaxis)
  43. How do we treat infection with Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)?
    Bendazoles
  44. How do we treat infection with Ascaris lumbricoides?
    Bendazoles
  45. How do we treat infection with Strongyloides stercoralis?
    Ivermectin or bendazoles
  46. Describe infection with Necator americanus (hookworm). How do we treat?
    • Intesitnal infection causing anemia by sucking blood from intestinal walls ⇦ Ancyclostoma duodenale, Necator americuanus
    • Tx: Bendazoles or Pyrantel pamoate
  47. Describe infection with Ancyclostoma duodenale (hookworm). How do we treat?
    • Intesitnal infection causing anemia by sucking blood from intestinal walls ⇦ Ancyclostoma duodenale, Necator americuanus
    • Tx: Bendazoles or Pyrantel pamoate
  48. Describe infection with Onchocerca volvulus. How do we treat?
    • Hyperpigmented skin and river blindness.
    • Tx: Ivermectin (ivermectin for riverblindness)
  49. Describe infection with Loa Loa. How do we treat?
    • Swelling in skin, worm in conjunctiva
    • Tx: Diethylcarbamazine
  50. Describe infection with Wuchereia bancrofti. How do we treat?
    • Blocks lymphatic vessels: elephantiasis; takes 9 mo–1 yr after bite to become symptomatic
    • Tx: Diethylcarbamazine
  51. Describe infection with Toxoplasma canis. How do we treat?
    • Visceral larva migrans
    • Tx: Bendazoles
  52. How do we treat intestinal infection caused by Taenia solium?
    Praziquantel
  53. How do we treat neurocysticercercosis caused by Taenia solium?
    Albendazole
  54. How do we treat infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus?
    Albendazole
  55. How do we treat infections caused by Schistosoma?
    Praziquantel
  56. Describe infections caused by Clonorchis sinensis? How do we treat?
    • Biliary tract inflammation  ⇨pigmented gallstones
    • Associated with cholangiocarcinoma
    • Praziquantel
  57. How do we prevent pneumonia caused by Respiratory syncytical virus in infants?
    Palivizumab - monoclonal antibody against F protein
  58. This drug is a monoclonal antibody against F protein?
    Palivizumab- Tx of RSV in infants
  59. What can be used to reduce measles mortality in malnourished children?
    Vitamin A

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