ChapterTen - Digestive System terms

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ChapterTen - Digestive System terms
2015-03-12 18:30:38

Digestive System terms
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  1. aphagia
    inability to swallow, literally "without eating"
  2. ascites
    an accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity that produces an enlarged abdomen
  3. constipation
    infrequent or incomplete bowel movements
  4. diarrhea
    frequent discharge of watery fecal material
  5. dyspepsia
    commonly called indigestion, it is accompanied by stomach or esophageal pain or discomfort
  6. dysphagia
    difficulty in swallowing
  7. flatus
    presence of gas, or air, in the GI tract
  8. gastrodynia
    symptom of stomach pain, also known as gastralgia
  9. halitosis
    condition of bad breath
  10. hematemesis
    vomiting blood, a sign of a severe digestive disorder
  11. hepatomegaly
    abnormal enlargement of the liver
  12. jaundice
    yellowish-orange coloration of the skin, sclera of the eyes, and deeper tissue that is a collective sign of liver disease
  13. nausea
    symptom of dizziness that includes an urge to vomit; when accompanied by vomiting, it is abbreviated N&V
  14. reflux
    backward flow of material in the GI tract, or regurgitation
  15. steatorrhea
    abnormal levels of fat in the feces, literally "discharge of fat"
  16. anorexia nervosa
    emotional eating disorder in which the patient avoids food due to a compulsion to become thin in appearance
  17. appendicitis
    inflammation of the appendix
  18. bulimia
    eating disorder involving repeated gorging with food followed by induced vomiting or laxative abuse
  19. cheilitis
    inflammation of the lip
  20. cholecystitis
    inflammation of the gallbladder, usually caused by gallstones lodged within it
  21. choledochitis
    inflammation of the common bile duct
  22. cholelithiasis
    generalized condition of stones lodged within the gallbladder or bile ducts
  23. cirrhosis
    chronic, progressive liver disease characterized by the gradual loss of liver cells and their replacement by fat and other forms of connective tissue
  24. colitis
    inflammation of the colon; if chronic bleeding of the colon wall produces bloody diarrhea, the condition is called ulcerative colitis
  25. Crohn disease (regional ileitis or regional enteritis)
    chronic inflammation of any part of the GI tract that involves ulcerations, scar tissue formation, and thickening adhesions of the organ wall, also known as regional ileitis and regional enteritis
  26. diverticulosis
    presence of small pouches called diverticula on the wall of the colon, often without symptoms or with mild bowel discomfort
  27. diverticulitis
    condition of inflammation of diverticula, or small pouches on the wall of the colon
  28. duodenal ulcer
    ulcer, or erosion, in the wall of the duodenum of the small intestine
  29. dysentery
    acute inflammation of the GI tract that is caused by bacteria, protozoa, or chemical irritants
  30. enteritis
    inflammation of the small or large intestine
  31. esophagitis
    inflammation of the esophagus often caused by acid reflux
  32. esophagomalacia
    morbid softening of the esophageal wall caused by chronic esophagitis
  33. food-borne illness
    ingestion of food contaminated with harmful bacteria can cause symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting; Clostridium botulism causes the food-borne illness known as botulism
  34. botulism
    life-threatening food-borne illness caused by Clostridium botulinum
  35. gastrectasis
    abnormal stretching of the stomach
  36. gastromegaly
    abnormal enlargement of the stomach
  37. gastric cancer
    an aggressive, metastatic cancer arising from cells lining the stomach, commonly known as stomach cancer
  38. gastric ulcer
    ulcer, or erosion, in the wall of the stomach
  39. gastritis
    inflammation of the stomach
  40. gastroenteritis
    inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
  41. gastroenterocolitis
    inflammation of the stomach, small intestine, and colon all at once
  42. gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    condition of recurring reflux in the stomach contents in the esophagus
  43. gastromalacia
    softening of the stomach wall
  44. giardiasis
    infection by the intestinal protozoa Giardia intestinalis or Giardgi lamblia produces symptoms of diarrhea, cramps, nausea, and vomiting.
  45. gingivitis
    inflammation of the gums or gingiva, Glands
  46. glossitis
    inflammation of the tongue often by exposure to allergens, toxic substances, or extreme heat or cold
  47. glossopathy
    disease of the tongue
  48. hemorrhoids
    varicose, or swollen, condition of the veins in the anus that produces painful swellings that may break open and bleed
  49. hepatitis
    viral-induced inflammation of the liver; the five known forms are categorized with the letters A through E
  50. malignant hepatoma (hepatocellular carcinoma or HCC)
    tumor arising from cells within the liver; also called hepatoma
  51. hiatal hernia
    protrusion of the cardiac portion of the stomach through the hiatus of the diaphragm to enter the thoracic cavity
  52. direct inguinal hernia
    type of hernia that is a protrusion into the scrotal cavity in males
  53. umbilical hernia
    type of hernia that is a protrusion of a small intestinal segment through a tear in the membrane covering the abdominal wall at the umbilical (navel) region
  54. strangulated hernia
    type of hernia that restricts blood flow to the protruding organ, requiring medical intervention to avoid the loss of the affected organ
  55. inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
    general term that includes the conditions ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease
  56. intussusception
    condition of infolding of a segment of the small intestine within another segment
  57. irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
    chronic disease characterized by periodic disturbances of large intestinal (bowel) function without clear physical damage
  58. lactose intolerance (LI)
    lack of an enzyme in the small intestine that breaks down lactose, the primary sugar in milk, and milk products
  59. malabsorption syndrome
    disorder that is characterized by difficulty in absorbing one or more nutrients
  60. lipopenia
    type of life-threatening malabsorption syndrome that is the inability to absorb fat molecules
  61. pancreatitis
    inflammation of the pancreas
  62. parotitis (mumps)
    inflammation of one or both parotid glands; if caused by a virus, it is usually referred to as mumps
  63. peptic ulcer
    erosion into the inner wall of an organ along the GI tract
  64. peritonitis
    inflammation of the extensive membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of its organs
  65. polyposis
    condition of polyps, usually occurring in the colon or rectum of the large intestine, where it increases the risk for colorectal cancer
  66. proctitis
    inflammation of the anus, and usually the rectum as well
  67. proctoptosis
    prolapse of the rectum
  68. volvulus
    severe twisting of the intestine that leads to obstruction
  69. abdominocentesis
    surgical puncture through the abdominal wall to remove fluid; also known as paracentesis
  70. antacid
    an agent that reduces the acidity of the stomach cavity
  71. antiemetic
    a drug that prevents or stops the vomiting reflex
  72. antispasmodic
    a drug that reduces peristalsis activity in the GI tract
  73. antidiarrheal
    used to treat symptoms of diarrhea, usually by increasing water absorption in the colon while decreasing spasms
  74. appendectomy
    surgical removal of the appendix
  75. cathartic
    an agents that stimulates strong waves of peristalsis of the colon
  76. laxative
    an agent that causes mild waves of peristalsis
  77. cheilorrhaphy
    procedure of suturing a lip
  78. cholecystectomy
    surgical removal of the gallbladder
  79. cholecystogram
    the X-ray image of the gallbladder
  80. cholecystography
    procedure of producing an X-ray image, or cholecystogram, of the gallbladder
  81. choledocholithotomy
    surgery that involves the removal of one or more obstructive gallstones from the common bile duct
  82. cleft palate
    a congenital defect in which the bones supporting the roof of the mouth, or hard palate, fail to fuse during fetal development, leaving a space between the oral cavity and nasal cavity
  83. colectomy
    surgical removal of a segment of the colon
  84. colostomy
    surgical creation of an opening in the colon to serve as an artificial anus
  85. fecal occult blood test (FOTB)
    clinical lab test performed to detect blood in the feces
  86. gastrectomy
    surgical removal of part of the stomach or, in extreme cases, the entire organ
  87. gastric lavage
    cleansing procedure in which the stomach is irrigated with a prescribed solution
  88. gavage
    process of feeding a patient through a tube inserted into the nose that extends through the esophagus to enter the stomach
  89. nasogastric tube
    the name of the tube used during the gavage process
  90. GI endoscopy
    visual examination of the GI tract made possible by the use of an endoscope
  91. esophagoscopy
    examines the esophagus
  92. gastroscopy
    views the stomach
  93. esophagogastroduodenoscopy
    examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
  94. laparoscopy
    examines the abdominal cavity
  95. colonoscopy
    views the colon
  96. sigmoidoscopy
    examines the sigmoid colon
  97. proctoscopy
    observes the rectum
  98. GI series
    diagnostic techniques that provide radiographic examination of the GI tract, usually by means of barium swallow, barium shake, or barium meal (upper GI), of barium enema (BE) (lower GI)
  99. barium enema (BE)
    is the administration of barium sulfate into the colon or rectum for lower GI series (LGI) of X-rays
  100. gingivectomy
    surgical removal of diseased tissue in the gums, or gingiva
  101. glossorrhaphy
    surgical repair of the tongue
  102. hemorrhoidectomy
    surgical removal of hemorrhoids
  103. ileostomy
    surgical creation of an opening through the abdominal wall and into the ileum of the small intestine to establish an alternative anus for the passage of feces
  104. stoma
    the name of the new opening of the ileum of the small intestine after a ileostomy
  105. laparotomy (LAP)
    surgical procedure that involves an incision through the abdominal wall, often from the base of the sternum to the pubic bone
  106. polypectomy
    surgical removal of polyps
  107. pyloroplasty
    surgical repair of the pylorus region of the stomach, which may include the repair of the pyloric valve
  108. stool culture and sensitivity (C&S)
    test that includes obtaining stool (fecal) samples, using the samples to grow microorganisms in culture, and identification of the microorganisms
  109. vagotomy
    a procedure in which several branches of the vagus nerve are severed (with an incision) to reduce acid secretion in the stomach
  110. gastric ulcers
    ulcers, or erosions in the wall of the stomach
  111. colorectal cancer
    cancer of the colon and the rectum that often arises as a polyp to become aggressive, metastatic tumor