patho final review 2: anemia

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Author:
wvuong
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298294
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patho final review 2: anemia
Updated:
2015-03-12 19:12:22
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patho anemia
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patho
Description:
review 2
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  1. Anemia
    [treatment]
    • treatment base on cause: 
    • lack of nutrients - Iron, B12, folate

    drugs, cancer, irradiation
  2. Hemolytic anemia is
    inherited/acquired
  3. What is the MCV (mean corpuscular volume) for 
    Microcytic, 
    normocytic, 
    macrocytic?
    • Microcytic: <80
    • Normocytic: 80-100
    • Macrocytic: >100
  4. Iron deficiency anemia
    [causes]
    menstrual, GI, PUD, cancer, diverticulosis, IBD, angiodysplasia, celiac sprue

    others: preggo, infancy, iatrogenic
  5. Iron deficiency anemia
    [test]
    serum Ferritin
  6. Hemolytic anemia
    Warm: IgG; treated with steroids, splenectomy

    Cold: IgM; treated with plasmapheresis
  7. Aplastic anemia
    • rapid progressive disorder 
    • 50% - no obvious cause
  8. aplastic anemia 
    [treatment]
    stem cell transplant/ bone marrow transplant
  9. Thrombocytopenia 
    [cause]
    [treatment]
    • platelets <100,000
    • cause: drugs (heparin) and infection
    • tx: maintain between 10-200,000
  10. Von Willebrand disease (vWD)
    • inherited bleeding disorder
    • autosomal dominant trait
    • males=females
  11. Hemophilia A and B
    bleeding in joints, muscles, and GI

    • X-linked recessive disorder with deficiency of:
    • ---Factor VIII in type A
    • ---Factor IX in type B
  12. Neutropenia 
    [cause]
    [treatment]
    • low neutrophil count
    • cause: infection, drugs, autoimmune, congenital
    • tx: treat the underlying cause 

    ANC- absolute neutrophil count
  13. ALL - acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    • childhood (3-7 yrs)
    • bleeding minor 
    • platelets severely low (<40,000)
    • tx: chemotherapy
  14. AML - acute myelogenous leukemia
    • onset age after 50
    • increases with age 
    • tx: chemotherapy (30% cure rate) 
    • post-remission therapy +repeat chemo and/or bone marrow transplant
  15. CLL - Chronic Lymphocytic leukemia
    • onset age after 50
    • common form of leukemia in adults 
    • clonal proliferation of defective B lymphocytes 
    • bone marrow failure 
    • tx: chemo and/or bone marrow transplant
  16. CML - Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
    • translocation between chromosomes 9 - 22 creates uniqure protein, bcr-abl
    • adults: fatigue, night sweats, low-grade fever 
    • tx: medical therapy to suppress malignant clones, normalize blood counts, and delay blast crisis
  17. Hairy cell
    caner of B lymphocytes
  18. myelodysplastic syndrome
    cancer hasnt decided which type to become
  19. proto-oncogenes
    normal cellular genes that can be transformed into oncogenes by activating mutations
  20. Rb Gene
    • 'master brake'
    • blocks/stops cell division
  21. p53 Gene
    • common tumor-suppressor gene 
    • direct cell to initiate apoptosis 
    • If error, jumps on DNA directly; if not, self-destruct (apoptosis)
  22. angiogenesis
    • process by which cancer tumor forms new blood vessels in order to grow 
    • develops at late stages
  23. Grading tumors
    • TNM
    • tumor, nodes, metastasis

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